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1. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Consequences of Underage Alcohol Use. http://www.health.org/govpubs/rpo992/

2. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Underage Drinking Enforcement Training Center web site.

3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Underage Drinking: A Growing Health Care Concern. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) web site.

4. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). Why 21? Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) web site.

5. American Medical Association (AMA). Minimum Legal Drinking Age. American Medical Association (AMA) web site.

6. Hanson, David J. Legal Drinking Age (http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol-info/LegalDrinkingAge.html)

7. Foley, Kristie Long, et al. Adults’ approval and adolescents’ alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2004, 35(4), 345-346. [This research study was funded by the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program.]

8. Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.


Allen, D. N., Sprenkel, D. G., and Vitale, P. A. Reactance theory and alcohol consumption laws: Further confirmation among collegiate alcohol consumers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1994, 55(1), 34-40.

Asch, P. and Levy, D.T. Does the minimum age effect traffic fatalities? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,1987, 6(2), 180-192.

Brake, Mike. Needed: A license to drink. Newsweek, March 14, 1994.

Chauncey, Robert L. New careers for moral entrepreneurs: Teenage drinking. Journal of Drug Issues, 1980, 45-70.

Colón, Israel. The alcohol beverage purchase age and single-vehicle highway fatalities. Journal of Safety Research, 1984, 15, 159-162.

Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities. Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on American Campuses. New York: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994. (Note: An investigative reporter has documented that material in this report is unsubstantiated, of highly questionable accuracy, or misleading.)

Davis, James E. Alcohol use among college students: Responses to raising the purchase age. Journal of American College Health, 1990, 38, 263.

Department of Health and Human Services. Youth and Alcohol: Laws and Enforcement - Is the 21-Year-Old Drinking Age a Myth? Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 1991, p. 5.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. University students' drinking patterns and problems: Examining the effects of raising the purchase age. Public Health Reports, 1988, 1, 65-83.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Age-specific alcohol prohibition and college students' drinking problems. Psychological Reports, 1986, 59, 979-984.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Reactance theory: A test with collegiate drinking. Psychological Reports, 1989, 64, 1083-108.

Fillmore, Kaye M., and Wittman, F. D. The effects of alcohol availability on college student drinking: A trend study. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1982, 11, 455-492.

Globetti, Gerald. Prohibition Norms and Teenage Drinking. In: Ewing, J. A., and Rouse, Beatrice A. (eds.) Drinking Alcohol in American Society - Issues and Current Research. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, Inc., 1978. pp. 159-170.

Hanson, David J. Drug Education Programs. In: The International Encyclopedia of Curriculum. Oxford, England: Pergamon, second ed., 1991.

Hanson, David J. Alcohol, Drug and Smoking Education Programs. In: The International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford, England: Pergamon, second ed., 1994.

Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

Hanson, David J. Effectiveness of specific public policies on substance abuse prevention. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 1996, 9, 235-238.

Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Heath, Dwight B. The new temperance movement: Through the looking glass. Drugs & Society, 1989, 3, 143-168.

Hingson, Ralph, Merrigan, Daniel, and Heeren, Timothy. Effects of Massachusetts raising its legal drinking age from 18 to 20 on deaths from teenage homicide, suicide and nontraffic accidents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 1985, 32, 221-233.

Lotterhos, J. F., Glover, E. D., Holbert, D., and Barnes, R. C. Intentionality of college students regarding North Carolina's 21-year drinking age law. International Journal of the Addictions, 1988, 23, 629-647.

Perkins, H. Wesley and Berkowitz, Alan D. Stability and contradiction in college students' drinking following a drinking-age law change. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1989, 35, 60-77.

Pittman, David J. The New Temperance Movement. In: Pittman, David J. and White, Helene R. (ed.) Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns Reexamined. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1991. pp. 775-790.

Vingilis, E. and Smart, Reginald G. Effects of raising the legal drinking age in Ontario. British Journal of Addiction, 1981, 76, 415-424.

Williams, Frank G., Kirkman-Liff, Bradford L., and Szivek, Pamela H. College student drinking behaviors before and after changes in state policy. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1990, 35, 12-25.

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