Category: Prohibition

Prohibition serves as an excellent example of a public policy based on hopes and desires rather than on logic and common sense. Every proposed policy should always be examined in terms of its possible unintended outcomes and every existing policy should be examined an evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and absence of undesirable unintended consequences.

P.T. Barnum, Dedicated Anti-Alcohol Temperance Campaigner

P.T. Barnum, of Barnum & Bailey Circus fame, wrote that he was a drinking person until about the age of 40. “Then, I saw so much intoxication among men of wealth, filling the highest positions in society, that I began to ask myself the question ‘What guarantee is there that I may not become a […]

Women Leaders of Temperance & Prohibition

The women leaders of temperance and prohibition were highly committed to promoting their vision of a better world in which to live and raise their families. Following the Background section is a large number of women who contributed significantly to the temperance movement. Background Long before women gained the right to vote in the United […]

Negative Effects of Prohibition: Do You Know These 17?

The effects of Prohibition were far from what temperance activists promised. The supporters insisted that it would usher into existence a richer, healthier, safer, more moral society with less crime and violence. As it went into effect, the famous evangelist Billy Sunday extolled the expecteded effects of Prohibition in glowing terms. “The rein of tears […]

Main Pages


  • Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H., and Gerstein, Dean R. (eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. pp. 127-181.
  • Anti-Saloon League of America. Anti-Saloon League of America Yearbook. Westervile OH: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 28. Cited by Mulford, Harold A. Alcohol and Alcoholism in Iowa, 1965. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, 1965, p. 9.
  • Asbury, Herbert. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968 (Originally published 1950).
  • Bader, Robert S. Prohibition in Kansas: A History. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1986.
  • Baldy, Marian W. The University Wine Course: A Wine Appreciation Text and Self Tutorial. San Francisco, CA: Wine Appreciation Guild, 1993.
  • Beauchamp, Dan E. Alcohol-Abuse Prevention Through Beverage and Environmental Regulation: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going. In: Holder, Harold D, (ed.) Advances in Substance Abuse: Behavioral and Biological Research Supplement 1, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987. pp. 53-63.
  • Billings, John S. Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem: Investigations Made by and Under the Direction of John 0. Atwater, John S. Billings and Others. Sub-Committee of the Committee of Fifty to Investigate the Liquor Problem. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1903.
  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. Retreat from Reform. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. "Give to the Winds thy Fear": The Women's Temperance Crusade, 1873-1874. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston, MA: Twayne,1989.
  • Bordin, Ruth. Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873-1900. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1981.
  • Cahalan, Don. Why does the alcoholism field act like a ship of fools? British Journal of Addiction, 1979, 74, 235-238.
  • Cashman, Sean D. Prohibition: The Lie of the Land. New York: Free Press, 1981.
  • Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States of America. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1920.
  • Childs, Randolph W. Making Repeal Work. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Alcoholic Beverage Study, Inc., 1947.
  • Clark, N. H. Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. New York: Norton, 1976.
  • Conroy, D. W. Puritans and Tavern: Law and Popular Culture in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630-1720. Paper presented at the Conference on the Social History of Alcohol: Drinking and Culture and Modem Society. Berkeley, CA., 1984. Cited by Prendergast, Michael L. A History of Alcohol Problem Prevention Efforts in the United States. In: Holder, Harold D. (ed.) Control Issues in Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987, p. 27.
  • Cowan, Richard. How the narcs created crack. National Review, 1986, 38, pp. 26-28, 30-31.
  • E. M. J. (Presumably E. M. Jellinek). Classics of the alcohol literature: Scientific views of the spontaneous combustion of inebriates. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1941, 2, 804-805.
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  • Erickson, Judith B. Making King Alcohol tremble. The juvenile work of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, 1874-1900. Journal of Drug Education, 1988, 18, 333-352.
  • Ewing, John A., and Rouse, Beatrice A. Drinks, Drinkers, and Drinking. In: Ewing, John A., and Rouse, Beatrice A. (eds.) Drinking: Alcohol in American Society—Issues and Current Research. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1978. pp. 5-30.
  • Feldman, Herman. Prohibition: Its Economic and Industrial Aspects. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1928.
  • Flanders, Jessie K. Legislative Control of the Elementary Curriculum. New York: Teachers College, 1925.
  • Ford, Gene. The Benefits of Moderate Drinking: Alcohol, Health and Society. San Francisco, CA: Wine Appreciation Guild, 1988.
  • Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: G. P. Pumam's Sons, 1965.
  • Garcia-McDonnell, Catherine L. The Effects of the Beginning Alcohol and Addictions Basic Education Studies (BABES) Prevention Curriculum on the Self-Esteem and Attitudes of Junior High School Students. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, 1993.
  • Gruber, Max. Race Welfare. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1910.
  • Gusfield, Joseph R. Alcohol Problems—An Interactionist View. In: von Wartburg, Jean- Pierre, Magnenat, Pierre, Muller, Richard, and Wyss, Sonja (eds.) Currents in Alcohol Research and the Prevention of Alcohol Problems—Proceedings of an International Symposium Held in Lausanne, Switzerland, November 7-9, 1983. Berne, Switzerland: Hans Huber Publishers, 1985. pp. 71-81
  • Hanson, David J. The Drinking Age Should be Lowered. In: Engs, Ruth C. (ed.) Controversies in the Addictions Field. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1990. pp. 85-95. Reprinted in: Goldberg, Raymond (ed.) Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Drugs and Society. Guilford, CT: Dushkin, 1993. pp. 78-85.
  • Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
  • Hanson, David J. The United States of America. In: Heath, Dwight B. (ed.) International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995b. pp. 300-315.
  • Heath, Dwight B. A Decade of Development in the Anthropological Study of Alcohol Use: 1970-1980. In: Douglas, Mary (ed.) Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. pp. 16-69.
  • Heath, Dwight, B. The new temperance movement: Through the looking glass. Drugs and Society, 1989, 3, 143-168.
  • Hofstader, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R.. New York: Vintage, 1965.
  • Hunt, Mary H. A History of the First Decade of the Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction in Schools and Colleges. Boston, MA: Washington Press, 1892.
  • Hunt, Mary H. An Epoch of the Nineteenth Century: An Outline of the Work for Scientific Temperance Education in the Public Schools of the United States. Boston, MA: Foster, 1897
  • Isaac, Paul E. Prohibition and Politics: Turbulent Decades in Tennessee, 1885-1920. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1965.
  • Kerr, K. Austin. Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.
  • Kobler,John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • Krout.JohnA. The Origins of Prohibition. New York: Knopf, 1925.
  • Kyvig, David E. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
  • Lee, Alfred M. Techniques of social reform: An analysis of the New Prohibition Drive. American Sociological Review, 1944, 9, 65-77. Reprinted as the New Prohibition Drive. In: McCarthy, Raymond G. (ed.) Drinking and Intoxication: Selected Readings in Social Attitudes and Controls. New Haven, CT: College and University Press, 1959. pp. 412-428.
  • Lender, Mark E., and Martin, James K. Drinking in America: A History. New York: The Free Press, 1982.
  • Levine, Harry. The birth of American alcohol control: Prohibition, the lawlessness. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1985, 12, 63-115.
  • Lotterhos, J. F., Glover, E. D., Holbert, D., and Bames, R. C. Intentionality of college students regarding North Carolina's 21 -year drinking age law. International Journal of Addiction, 1988, 23, 629-647.
  • MacAndrew, Craig, and Edgerton, Robert B. Drunken Comportment: A Social Explanation. Chicago, IL: Aldine, 1969.
  • McCarthy, Raymond G., and Douglass, Edgar M. Alcohol and Social Responsibility: A New Educational Approach. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and Yale Plan Clinic, 1949.
  • McConnell, D. W. Temperance Movements. In: Seligman, Edwin R. A., and Johnson, Alvin (eds.) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co., 1963.
  • Marshall, Mac (ed.) Beliefs, Behaviors, & Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Cultural Survey. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1979.
  • Mendelson, Jack H., and Mello, Nancy K. Alcohol: Use and Abuse in America. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1985.
  • Merz, Charles. The Dry Decade. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1969. (Contains a new introduction by the author. Originally published in 1930.) A Methodist editor. The American Issue, 1970 (January) quoted by Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • Mezvinsky, Norton. Scientific temperance instruction in the schools. History of Education Quarterly, 1961,7, 48-56.
  • Moore, Men-ill. The alcohol problem in the military service. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1942, 3, 244-256.
  • Morgan, Patricia. Industrialization, urbanization, and the attack on Italian drinking culture. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1988, 75, 607-626.
  • Mulford, Harold A. The Epidemiology of Alcoholism and Its Implications. In: Pattison, E. Mansell, and Kaufman, Edward (eds.) Encyclopedic Handbook of Alcoholism. New York: Gardner Press, 1982. pp. 441-457.
  • Nietz, John A. Old Textbooks: Spelling, Grammar, Reading, Arithmetic, Geography, American History, Civil Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music—Taught in the Common Schools From Colonial Days to 1900. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • Ohles, John F. The imprimatur of Mary H. H. Hunt. Journal of School Health, WS, 1978, 48, 477-478.
  • Ormond, Chart. Temperance Education in American Public Schools. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1929
  • Pauly, Philip, J. The struggle for ignorance about alcohol: American physiologists, Wilbur Olin Atwater, and the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990, 64, 366-392.
  • Peele, Stanton. The limitations of control-of-supply models for explaining and preventing alcoholism and drug addiction. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1987, 48, 61-77.
  • Peele, Stanton. Diseasing of America: Addiction Treatment out of Control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.
  • Ploetz, Alfred J. The Influence of Alcohol Upon the Race. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1915.
  • Pollard, Joseph P. The Road to Repeal: Submission to Conventions. New York: Brentano's , 1932, p. 107. Cited by Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1962, p. 110.
  • Popham, Robert E. The Social History of the Tavern. In: Israel, Yedy, Glaser, Frederick B., Kalant, Harold, Popham, Robert E., Schmidt, Harold, and Smart, Reginald G. (eds.) Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems. New York: Plenum, 1978. Volume 4. pp. 255-302.
  • Prendergast, Michael L. A History of Alcohol Problem Prevention Efforts in the United States. In: Holder, Harold D. (ed.) Control Issues on Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987. pp. 25-52.
  • Ripley, George, and Dana, Charles A. (eds.). The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1857. Volume 1.
  • Roizen, Ron. Redefining alcohol in post-repeal America: Lessons from the short life of Everett Colby's Council for Moderation, 1934-1936. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1991,75,237-272.
  • Room, Robin. Alcohol as a Course: Empirical Links and Social Definitions. In: von Wartburg, Jean-Pierre, Magnenat, Pierre, Miller, Richard, and Wyss, Sonja (eds.) Currents in Alcohol Research and the Prevention of Alcohol Problems: Proceedings of an International Symposium Held in Lausanne, Switzerland, November 7-9, 1983. Berne, Switzerland: HansHuber, 1985. pp. 11-19.
  • Rorabaugh, William J. The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • Rorabaugh, William J. Alcohol in America. Magazine of History, 1991, 6, 17-19.
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  • Ross, H. Laurence, and Hughes, Graham. Getting MADD in vain: Drunk driving—what not to do. The Nation, 1986, 243, 663-664.
  • Rostow, Eugene V. Recent proposals for federal legislation controlling the use of liquor. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1942, 3, 230-235.
  • Roueche, Berton. The Neutral Spirit: A Portrait of Alcohol. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1960.
  • Roueche, Berton. Alcohol in Human Culture. In: Lucia, Salvatore P. (ed.) Alcohol and Civilization. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. pp. 167-182.
  • Royce, James E. Alcohol Problems and Alcoholism: A Comprehensive Survey. New York: Free Press, 1981.
  • Rubin, Jay L. The Wet War: American Liquor Control, 1941-1945. In: Blocker, Jr., Jack S. (ed.) Alcohol, Reform and Society: The Liquor Issue in Social Context. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979. pp. 235-258. Contributions in American History, Number 83.
  • Schlaadt, Richard G. Alcohol Use and Abuse. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing, 1992.
  • Schmidt, Laura A. "A battle not man's but God's": Origins of the American temperance crusade in the struggle for religious authority. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1995, 56, 110-121.
  • Seldes, George (compiler). The Great Quotations. New York: Lyie Stuart, 1960.
  • Sewall, Thomas. Effects of Intemperance on the Intellectual, Moral and Physical Powers. Albany, NY: 1841. Quoted by Krout, John A. The Origins of Prohibition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1925, p. 229.
  • Sheehan, Nancy M. The WCTU and education: Canadian-American illustrations. Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society, 1981, P, 115-133.
  • Sheehan, Nancy M. National pressure groups and provincial curriculum policy: Temperance in Nova Scotia schools 1880-1930. Canadian Journal of Education, 1984b, 9, 73-88.
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  • Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1962.
  • Smith, Marcus. The Boston Speaker. Boston, MA: Joseph Dowe, 6th ed., 1844. Cited by Elson, Ruth M. in Guardians of Tradition: American Schoolbooks of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1964, p. 319.
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  • Thomton, Mark. The Economics of Prohibition. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 1991.
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  • Timberlake, James H. Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963.
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  • Wiener, Carolyn. The Politics of Alcoholism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1981.
  • Willebrandt, Mabel W. The Inside of Prohibition. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929.
  • Ziegler, G. A., Rommell, W. E., and Herz, George. Prohibition and Anti-Prohibition. New York: Broadway Publishing Co., 1911.
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  • Zinberg, Norman E., and Fraser, Kathleen M. The Role of the Social Setting in the Prevention and Treatment of Alcoholism. In: Mendelson, Jack H., and Mello, Nancy K. (eds.) The Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholism. New York: McGraw-Hill, second edition, 1985. pp. 457-483.
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