Richmond Pearson Hobson
Richmond Pearson Hobson was the most highly paid of the over 2,000 public speakers for the Anti-Saloon League. His gift of oratory was highly valued by the League and his membership in Congress gave him political clout. Hobson introduced proposed constitutional amendments to establish national prohibition over 20 times and he has been called the Father of American Prohibition.
By all accounts Hobson was
"chilly and reserved. Someone who knew him as a boy in the Alabama cotton country, where Hobson had been born in 1870, remembered him as ‘gravefaced. His manner was stiff and formal; his conversation, almost comically stilted.' When he entered the United States Naval Academy, he quickly became a pariah by conscientiously reporting the misdemeanors of his classmates. Only one man is said to have spoken with him for two entire years. But when his fellow midshipmen offered to make it up, Hobson refused; he had, he said, gotten along perfectly well without them."1
Hobson resigned from the Navy in 1903 and was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served from 1907 to 1915. After failing to win the Democratic nomination in 1916, he largely devoted himself to promoting prohibition. His popular hour-long presentation was titled "The Great Destroyer." Congress authorized the printing of 50 million copies for distribution to every household in America.2
Richmond Hobson organized the American Alcohol Education Association in 1921, the International Narcotic Education Association in 1923, the World Conference on Narcotic Education in 1926, and the World Narcotic Defense Association in 1927.3
In promoting prohibition, Hobson asserted as a "scientific fact" that the "higher nature" of humans was located at the top of the brain. These tissues were supposedly tender and highly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol because they were the most-recently evolved. He argued that:
Alcohol is a protoplasmic poison, the loathsome excretion of living organisms, the ferment of germs, belonging to the family of toxins. It is an insidious, habit-forming drug. Alcohol tears down the top part of the brain, so that every time a man drinks, will power declines. In destroying the seat of the will power, alcohol destroys the seat of the moral senses, and of the spiritual nature, the recognition of right and wrong, the consciousness of God and of duty and of brotherly love and of self-sacrifice. It is this same lowering of the average citizen's character in the past that entailed the overthrow of the liberties of Greece and Rome and other Republics. It is the greatest question in the life history of the human species, actually determining more than all other questions combined -- the perpetuity of any civilization.4
As a member of Congress, Richmond Pearson Hobson expressed his strong support for a prohibition amendment in the House of Representatives on December 22, 1914. After asserting that the wets or opponents of prohibition "have no foundation in scientific truth to stand upon, and so they resort to all kinds of devious methods" he explained what he contended were the scientific facts:
Liquor Degenerates the Character
The first finding of science that alcohol is a protoplasmic poison....
Reverses the Life Principle of the Universe
All life in the universe is founded upon the principle of evolution. Alcohol directly reverses that principle. Man has risen from the savage up through successive steps to the level of the semisavage, the semicivilized, and the highly civilized.
Liquor and the Red Man
Liquor promptly degenerates the red man, throws him back into savagery. It will promptly put a tribe on the war path.
Liquor and the Black Man
Liquor will actually make a brute out of a negro, causing him to commit unnatural crimes.
Liquor and the White Man
The effect is the same on the white man, though the white man being further evolved it takes longer time to reduce him to the same level. Starting young, however, it does not take a very long time to speedily cause a man in the forefront of civilization to pass through the successive stages and become semicivilized, semisavage, savage, and, at last, below the brute.
The Great Tragedy
The spiritual nature of man gives dignity to his life above the life of the brute. It is this spiritual nature of man that makes him in the image of his Maker, so that the Bible referred to man as being a little lower than the angels. It is a tragedy to blight the physical life. No measure can be made of blighting the spiritual life.
The Blight Degeneracy
Nature does not tolerate reversing its evolutionary principle, and proceeds automatically to exterminate any creature, any animal, any race, any species that degenerates. Nature adopts two methods of extermination-one to shorten the life, the other to blight the offspring.5
Hobson's negative views on race were widely held by other prohibitionist leaders and supporters. They included William H. Anderson, Purley Baker, Daisy Douglas Barr, Bishop James Canon, Jr., and Lillian Sedwick. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) strongly supported and defended prohibition and many of its leaders were also leaders in temperance organizations.
Richmond Pearson Hobson died on March 16, 1937, in New York City and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.6
Readings on Richmond Pearson Hobson
- Arlington National Cemetery. Richmond Pearson Hobson.
- Austin, Henry. Hobson's Choice. NY: R.F. Fenno & Co., 1898.
- Hobson Family (Information concerning Richmond Pearson Hobson). OCLC number 247133828
- Jones, Bartlett C. Prohibition and Eugenics, 1920-1933. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1963, 18(2), 158-173.
- Kerr, K. Austin. Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-
Saloon League. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.
- New York Times. TEMPERANCE FOLK ASSAIL UNDERWOOD; Anti-Saloon League Indorses Hobson for the Senate and Hits at His Rival. AIMS SHOT AT BRYAN, TOO Hobson at Columbus Convention Pledges Aid to a National Prohibition Law. Columbus, Ohio. The Resolutions Committee of the Anti-Saloon League of America, in convention here to-day, indorsed the candidacy of Richmond Pearson Hobson of Alabama for United States Senator over Oscar M. Underwood, majority leader in Congress. New York Times, November 14, 1913, p. 7.
- Pittman, Walter E. Richmond Pearson Hobson and the Fight for a Big Navy, 1898-1908. M.A. thesis. Mississippi State University, 1961.
- Pittman, Walter E. Navalist and Progressive: The Life of Richmond P. Hobson. Manhattan, KS: MA/AH Publishing, 1981.
- Ramsey, Bob. Captain Hobson - The Father of American Prohibition. 1995. Schaffer Drug Library. druglibrary.org/Schaffer/people/hobson/captain_hobson.html
- Rosenfeld, Harvey. Richmond Pearson Hobson: Naval Hero of Magnolia Grove. Las Cruces, NM: Yucca Tree Press, 2000.
- Schroeder, John H. Review of Richmond Pearson Hobson: Naval Hero of Magnolia Grove (Harvey Rosenthal). Journal of Southern History, 2002, 68(4), 988-989.
- Sheldon, Richard N. Richmond Pearson Hobson: The Military Hero as Reformer During the Progressive Era. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Arizona, 1970.
- Snow, Richard F. Richmond Pearson Hobson. American Heritage Magazine, 1979, 30(5), American Characters section.
- Sonderstrum, T. Jason. Richmond Pearson Hobson. In: Blocker, Jack S., et al. (eds.) Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History. V. 1, pp. 295-296.
- Tutwiler, Julia S., Hobson Campaign Committee. Richmond Pearson Hobson: The Preparation for His Life Work. Livingston, AL: Hobson Campaign Club, 190?.
Publications by Richmond Pearson Hobson
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. The Disappearing Gun Afloat. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1895.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. A Lecture [on the Second Battalion, Naval Militia, New York.] Brooklyn, NY: First Division, Second Battalion, Naval Militia, New York, 1904.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. Disarmament. American Journal of International Law, 1908, 2(4), 743-757.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. Great Destroyer: The Speech of Hon. Richmond Pearson Hobson in the House of Representatives, February 2, 1911. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1911.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. The Truth about Alcohol: Speech of Hon. Richmond P. Hobson in the House of Representativess December 22, 1914. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1914.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. Alabama Pamphlets Collection, 1821-1961. OCLC number 122498782
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. The Sinking of the Merrimac. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988.
- Richmond Pearson Hobson. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- 1. Snow, Richard F. Richmond Pearson Hobson. American Heritage Magazine, 1979, 30(5), American Characters section.
- 2. Ramsey, Bob. Captain Hobson - The Father of American Prohibition. 1995. Schaffer Drug Library. druglibrary.org/Schaffer/people/hobson/captain_hobson.html
- 3. Jones, Bartlett C. Prohibition and Eugenics, 1920-1933. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1963, 18(2), 158-173.
- 4. Ramsey, Bob. Captain Hobson - The Father of American Prohibition. 1995. Schaffer Drug Library. druglibrary.org/Schaffer/people/hobson/captain_hobson.html
- 5. Kerr, K. Austin. Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-
saloon League. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.
- 6. Arlington National Cemetery. Richmond Pearson Hobson.
Resources on M. Louise Gross:
- David E. Kyvig. Women against Prohibition. American Quarterly, 1976 (Autumn), 28(4), 465-482.
Kenneth D. Rose. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition (American Social Experience Series; 33); 1996, New York University Press, New York, NY. Pg 67.
M. Louise Gross. M. Louise Gross papers, ca. 1898-1939. Papers of M. Louise Gross in connection with the Molly Pitcher Club, the Women's Committee for Modification of the Volstead Act, the Women's Committee for Repeal of the 18th Amendment and the Women's Moderation Union. NY: New York Public Library.
Louise Gross. Speech Delivered by M. Louise Gross, Chairman of the Women's Moderation Union, before the Tenth Congress of the International League Against Prohibition, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 27th to 29th, 1929. Harrison, NY: Women's Moderation Union, 1929.
- M. Louise Gross. Survey of Scandinavian Liquor Control Systems including the Bratt System in Sweden, Also England and Poland. Harrison, NY: Women's Moderation Union, 1930.
M. Louise Gross. Brief History of the Women's Committee for Repeal of the 18th Amendment from 1920-1931. NY: Women's Committee for the Repeal of the 18th Amendment, 1932.
M. Louise Gross. Speech Delivered by M. Louise Gross, Chairman Women's Committee for Modification of the Volstead Act, before Members of the Reichstag in Hotel Adlon, Berlin, Germany, September 9, 1927; Alcohol Committee of the League of Nations General Assembly, Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, September 15, 1927; Lacremaillere, Paris, France, September 22, 1927. (pamphlet) Harrison, NY: Harrison Print, 1927.
M. Louise Gross. Speeches by Miss [M.Louise] Gross, Chairman of Women's Committee for the Repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, together with Clippings concerning Her Activities (1924-1930. NY: New York Public Library.
Time. Torrid Talk. Time, February 24, 1930. Quotes from M. Louise Gross' testimony on Prohibition before the House Judiciary Committee.