The Social Norms Marketing Approach
One of the originators of the social norms approach to substance
abuse prevention and health promotion, Dr. H. Wesley Perkins, has
edited The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College
Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians.
The scope of the book can be seen in the list of contents:
Part I: Introduction
The Emergence and Evolution of the Social Norms Approach
to Substance Abuse Prevention - H. Wesley Perkins
Part II: Case Studies of College Experiments to Reduce
The Northern Illinois University Experiment: A Case Study
of the Social Norms Approach - Michael Haines and Gregory
The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Experiment: A Synergistic
Social Norms Approach Using Print, Electronic Media and Curriculum
Infusion to Reduce Collegiate Problem Drinking - H. Wesley
Perkins and David W. Craig
The University of Arizona '5 Campus Health Social Norms Media
Campaign - Koreen
Johannessen and Peggy Glider
Applying the Social Norms Model to Universal and Indicated
Alcohol Interventions at Western Washington University -
Patricia M. Fabiano
The Rowan University Social Norms Project - Linda R.
Jeffrey, Pam Negro, DeMond Miller, and John D. Frisone
The Small Group Norms-Challenging Model: Social Norms Interventions
with Targeted High Risk Groups - Jeanne Far and John Miller
PART III: Expanding Social Norms Interventions to Other
College Student Applications
Perceptions, Norms and Tobacco Use in College Residence
Hall Freshmen: Evaluation of a Social Norms Marketing Intervention
- Linda Hancock and Neil Henry
A Social Norms Approach to Building Campus Support/or Policy
Change - William DeJong
PART IV: Young Adults and Social Norms Work beyond the
Misperceptions of Peer Alcohol Norms in a Statewide Survey
of Young Adults - Jeff Linkenbach and H. Wesley Perkins
The Montana Model: Development and Overview of a Seven-Step
Process for Implementing Macro-Level Social Norms Campaigns
- Jeff Linkenbach
PART V: The Social Norms Approach in Middle and High
The Imaginary Lives of Peers: Patterns of Substance Use
and Misperceptions of Norms among Secondary School Students
- H. Wesley Perkins and David W. Craig
Most of Us Are Tobacco Free: An Eight-Month Social Norms
Campaign Reducing Youth
Initiation of Smoking in Montana - Jeff Linkenbach and H.
Using Social Norms To Reduce Alcohol And Tobacco Use in Two
Midwestern High Schools - Michael Haines, Gregory P. Barker,
and Richard Rice
PART VI: Further Applications and Challenges for the
Social Norms Model in Promoting Health and Well-Being
Parents' Perceptions of Parenting Norms: Using the Social
Norms Approach to Reinforce
Effective Parenting - Jeff Linkenbach, H. Wesley Perkins,
and William DeJong
Application of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social
Justice Issues - Alan Berkowitz
The Promise and Challenge of Future Work on the Social Norms
Model - H. Wesley Perkins
This authoritative handbook, which is the most comprehensive guide
available, helps practitioners apply social norms marketing techniques
in diverse populations (students, parents, young non-college adults,
etc.) in different environments (middle school, high school, college,
homes, or an entire state) with different behaviors (alcohol consumption,
tobacco use, effective parenting, pro-social actions, etc.)
The Social Norms Approach is published by Jossey-Bass
(ISBN 0-7879-6459-X) www.josseybass.com.
Please note: This website receives no benefit
whatsoever from the sale of this book
- Baer, J. S., and Carney, M. M. Biases in the perceptions of the
consequences of alcohol use among college students. Journal
of Studies on Alcohol, 1993, 54, 54-60.
- Baer, J. S., Stacy, A., and Lattimer, M. Biases in the perception
of drinking norms among college students. Journal of Studies
on Alcohol, 1991, 52, 580-586.
- Berkowitz, Alan D. The Social Norms Approach: Theory, Research
and Annotated Bibliography. Trumansburg, NY, 2003.
- Berkowitz, Alan D., and Perkins, H. Wesley. Current Issues in Effective
Alcohol Education Programming. In: Sherwood, J. S. (Ed.) Alcohol
Policies and Practices on College and University Campuses.
Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators,
- DeJong, W., and Linkenbach, J. Telling it like it is: Using social
norms marketing campaigns to reduce student drinking. American
Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 1999, 52(4),
- Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge
Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, Massachusetts:
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996.
- Haines, Michael P. Using media to change student norms and prevent
alcohol abuse: A tested model. Oregon Higher Education Alcohol
and Drug Newsletter, 1993, 1(2), 1-3.
- Haines, Michael P., and Spear, A. F. Changing the perceptions of
the norm: A strategy to decrease binge drinking among college students.
Journal of American College Health, 1996, 45,
- Hansen, William B., an Graham, J. W. Preventing alcohol, marijuana,
and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training
versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine,
1991, 20, 414-430.
- Johannessen, K., et. al. A Practical Guide to Alcohol
Abuse Prevention: A Campus Case Study in Implementing Social Norms
and Environmental Management Approaches. Tucson, AZ: Campus Health
Service, The University of Arizona, 1986.
A detailed examination of the first four years of the University
of Arizona's social norm campaign, which achieved a 29% reduction
in heavy drinking.
- Linkenbach, J.W. Application of social norms marketing to a variety
of health issues. Wellness Management, 1999, 15(3).
- Linkenbach, J. W. Building a Bridge: Applying the Social Norms
Model to Sexual Health. The BACCHUS & GAMMA Sexual Responsibility
Manual, 1999. (Available from the Bacchus & Gamma Peer Education
- Linkenbach, J.W. Imaginary Peers and the Reign of Error: Binge
Drinking Prevention Through Social Norms. The Prevention Connection:
A Publication of the Montana Prevention Resource Center and the
Addictive and Mental Disorders Division of the Montana Department
of Public Health and Human Services, 1999, (3), 1-5.
- Linkenbach, J.W. Social Norms Marketing Highlight: Drinking And
Driving. In P. Kotler, N. Roberto, & N. Lee (Eds.), Social
Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage (2nd Edition, 2002, pp. 162-166).
- Linkenbach, J.W. (2002). Social Norms. In P. Kotler, N. Roberto,
& N. Lee (Eds.), Social Marketing: Improving the Quality
of Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (2nd edition, 2002)
Linkenbach, J. W. and H. W. Perkins, "Misperceptions of Peer
Alcohol Norms in a Statewide Survey of Young Adults," (2003).
In: Perkins, H. Wesley (ed) The Social Norms Approach To Preventing
School And College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators,
Counselors, and Clinicians. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
This book chapter reports the results of a state-wide survey
of 18 to 24 year old residents in Montana that examines actual and
perceived norms for frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption
and prevalence of drinking and driving. Results again reveal dramatic
discrepancies between actual and perceived norms for both men and
Manoff, R.K Social Marketing: New Imperative for Public Health.
Praeger Publishers, 1985.
- Perkins, H. Wesley. College Student Misperceptions of Alcohol and
Other Drug Norms among Peers: Exploring Causes, Consequences, and
Implications for Prevention Programs. In: The Higher Education Center
for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Newton, MA: The Higher
Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1997.
- Perkins, H. Wesley. Scope of the problem: Misperceptions of alcohol
and drugs. Prevention through correcting Misperceptions of alcohol
and other drug norms: Notes on the state of the field. Catalyst,
1995, 1(3), 1-2.
- Perkins, H. Wesley. Social norms and the prevention of alcohol
misuse in college contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol/Supplement
No. 14, 2002.
An review of conceptual and empirical studies on the role of
social norms in college student alcohol use and in prevention strategies
to counter misuse. The normative influences of various constituencies
serving as reference groups for students are examined as possible
factors influencing students' drinking behavior.
- Perkins, H. Wesley, and Berkowiz, Alan D. Perceiving the community
norms of alcohol use among students: Some research implications
for campus alcohol education programming. International Journal
of Addictions, 1986, 21, 961-976.
- Perkins, H. Wesley and Craig, David. A Multifaceted Social Norms
Approach to Reduce High-Risk Drinking. Newton, MA: The Higher Education
Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Education Development
Center, Inc., 2002.
Describes the Hobart and William Smith Colleges' Social Norms
Project, which achieved a 30% reduction in high-risk drinking over
5 years. Contents include a complete description of program components,
including data collection, print media campaigns, electronic media
campaigns, curriculum development, and campus presentations.
- Perkins, H. Wesley, and Wechsler, Henry. Variations in perceived
college drinking norms and its impact on alcohol abuse: A nationwide
study. Journal of Drug Issues, 1996, 26, 961-974.
- Wood, M. D., Nnagoshi, C. T., and Dennis, D. A. Alcohol norms and
expectations as predictors of alcohol use and problems in a college
student sample. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,
1992, 18, 461-476.