Alcohol and Health: Medical Facts for Health & Long Life

What do we know about alcohol and health? We know is that moderate drinkers tend to have better health. That’s compared to either abstainers or heavy drinkers. They also have fewer heart attacks and strokes. They’re also less likely to have many other diseases. They also tend to live longer. And beer, wine and distilled spirits (liquor) appear to be equally good for health. Also for long life.

     OVERVIEW

          1. Background
          2. Longevity
          3. General Health
          4. Heart Health
          5. Strokes
          6. Diabetes
          7. Alzheimer’s & Dementia
          8. Arthritis
          9. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)
          10. Osteoporosis
          11. Gallstone/Gallbladder
          12. Cancers
          13. Other Diseases
          14. Resources

I. Some Background on Alcohol and Health

People have used alcohol for medication throughout history. Both the Old and New Testaments mention its medicinal value 191 times.1 Even by1904 there was medical evidence that moderate drinking reduced heart attack risk.2 And the evidence of health benefits of moderate drinking continues to grow.

Overall moderate drinking tends to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). And the reduction in coronary artery disease is very high.4 A federal agency (NIAAA) reports that such drinking is very good for heart health. It leads to a 40% to 60% drop in heart disease.5 At the same time it’s important to know that CVD is the leading cause of death in the US. In fact, it kills about one million people each year.6

Long Studied

The health benefits of moderate drinking have long been studied. In fact, scientific studies show that moderate drinkers have improved cardiovascular health. The American Heart Association made an important observation. “The lowest mortality occurs in those who consume one or two drinks per day.”7

Very important is the World Health Organization’s conclusion. It said there could no longer be doubt that moderate drinking reduces death from heart disease.8 But drinking alcohol in moderation has many other benefits.

Lifestyle Changes

Why drink to reduce the risk of heart disease? Wouldn’t eating a good diet, exercising, and losing weight do the same thing?

alcohol and healthNo, it wouldn’t. Alcohol is more effective than most other lifestyle changes for health. The average person would need to follow a very strict low-fat diet. They would need to exercise vigorously on a regular basis. They would need to eliminate salt from their diet. And they would also need to lose a substantial amount of weight. And probably begin medication. All this to lower cholesterol by 30 points or blood pressure by 20 points.

Yet alcohol can have a greater impact on heart disease than even these hard-won improvements. Only stopping smoking is more effective. Also, adding alcohol to a healthful diet is more effective than just following the diet alone.9

II. Alcohol and Health: Long Life

Drinking in moderation promotes longer life than either abstaining or drinking heavily.

  • alcohol and healthA federal agency (NIAAA) found that the lowest death rate from all causes occurs at the level of one to two drinks each day.10
  • Drinking alcohol in moderation (1-2 drinks per day for women and 2-4 for men) reduced death greatly. That is according to analysis of 34 studies of alcohol and death. They included 1,015,835 persons.11
  • Analysts reviewed all major heart disease studies. They found a U-shaped curve. Thus “Moderate consumers have a reduced total mortality compared with total non-consumers and heavy consumers.”12
          Harvard Study
  • A Harvard study looked at  the risk of death from all causes. Among men who drank moderately, it was 21 to 28% lower. That’s in comparison to abstainers.13
  • Doctors conducted a large study of middle-aged men in China. Those who drank moderately had a nearly 20% lower risk of death than abstainers. That is, non-drinkers.14
  • Doctors studied over 85,000 women. Moderate drinkers had a lower risk of death.15
  • British analysts studied 12,000 men. Moderate drinkers had the lowest risk of death.16
  • Researchers followed about 88,000 people for ten years. Moderate drinkers were 27% less likely to die during the period. That was compared to either abstainers or heavy drinkers.17
          Large Study
  • Doctors made a 12-year study of over 200,000 men. Moderate drinkers were less likely to die during the period. That’s compared to abstainers.18
  • Researchers studied over 40,000 people. Moderate drinkers were much less likely to die than abstainers.19
  • Analysists followed 89,299 men for over five and one-half years. Moderate drinkers tended to live longer than both abstainers and heavy drinkers.20
  • Italian doctors studied 1,536 men aged 45-65. The men gained about two years of life by drinking in moderation. This was compared to occasional and heavy drinkers.21
  • Clinicians followed 2,487 adults aged 70-79 years for a mean of over five and one-half years. The death rate was much lower in light to moderate drinkers. That’s compared to abstainers or occasional drinkers.22
  • In a large study, MDs followed older persons over time. Drinkers had a much lower risk of dying than non-drinkers.23
  • In another large study, doctors found that moderate drinkers lived much longer than abstainers.24
          Danish Study
  • A Danish study of about 12,000 people followed them for over 20 years. Abstaining increased the risk of death.25
  • Scientists followed nearly 3,000 Australians for 14 years. Moderate drinkers were less likely to die during the study.26
  • Researchers in China studied middle-aged men. Two drinks per day led to a 19% drop in risk of death.27
  • Alcohol prevents more deaths than its abuse causes in the UK. This, from researcher at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.28
  • Scientists analyzed the data for England and Wales. Moderate drinking of alcohol saves more lives than abusing it causes. So if everyone abstained, death rates would be much higher.29
  • The Cancer Council of New South Wales studied the data in Australia. “[T]here is a net saving of lives due to the protective effect of low levels of consumption on cardiovascular disease.”30

For more on alcohol and longevity visit these.

III. Alcohol and Health: General Health.

Drinking alcohol in moderation promotes better health than either abstaining or drinking heavily.

  • Researchers conducted a nation-wide survey in the US. Daily moderate drinkers had many fewer acute hospitalizations.31
  • A nine-year study found moderate drinking led to the best health.32
  • Doctors studied nearly 10,000 people at age 23 and again at age 33. Moderate drinkers had better general health. They also had fewer long-term illnesses. That’s compared to abstainers and heavy drinkers.33
  • Doctors in Spain studied nearly 20,000 adults. Moderate drinkers had better overall health than non-drinkers.34
          Nation-Wide Canadian Study
  • Researchers made a nation-wide study in Canadia. Moderate daily drinkers had 15% less disability than the general population.35
  • A Dutch study looked at moderate drinkers under stress. They were less likely to be absent from work.36
  • Doctors studied 3,803 persons age 18 to 101. They found lifelong abstainers to be consistently less healthy than moderate drinkers. That included both physical and mental health.37
  • A review of the research reported that moderate drinking reduces the risk of many diseases. They include duodenal ulcer, gallstones, entric infections, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and type 2 diabetes. Compared to abstainers, moderate drinkers had better better mental health. They also had less stress and depression, lower abstenteeism from work, and decreased dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease).39
  • Doctors followed about 2,500 people aged 65 and older regularly for about eight years. Those who drank and exercised regularly had fewer difficulties with their daily activities and physical functioning.40

For more on alcohol and general health visit these.

IV. Alcohol and Health: Heart Health.

alcohol and healthDrinking  alcohol in moderation promotes good heart health.

  • Research has shown a strong connection between moderate drinking and lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general. And of coronary artery disease in particular.41
  • Scientists made a study in seven European countries. Those who had a daily drink had a much better arterial elasticity than abstainers. That is a strong sign of heart health. They also had better pulse rates than abstainers.    
  • Doctors studied 1,795 persons. “[T]he risk of extensive coronary calcification was 50% lower in individuals who consumed one to two alcoholic drinks per day.” That’s compared to non-drinkers.46
  • Researchers reported that moderate drinkers have better endothelial function. This promotes better heart health. It also lowers risk of atherosclerosis and CVD.47
  • Researchers analyzed over 3,000 persons. Abstainers had a greater risk of high levels of CRP and IL-6 than moderate drinkers. Both are predictors of heart attack.48

A. Moderate Drinkers Less Likely to Suffer Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attacks  than Abstainers or Heavy Drinkers.

  • A NIAAA study reviewed the research. They were from at least 20 countries. They showed a 20- to 40-percent lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among drinkers compared to nondrinkers.  Its conclusion was clear. Moderate drinking causes lower risk of CHD.49
  • Harvard researchers have identified the moderate consumption of alcohol as a proven way to reduce CHD risk.50
  • Doctors studied 18,455 men. Some men originally had one drink or less per week. Some of those then increased consumption up to six drinks per week. They had a 29% reduction in CVD risk compared to those who did not increase their drinking. That is, men originally having 1-6 drinks per week who increased their drinking moderately had an extra 15% decrease in risk.51
         44,000 Men Studied
  • Analysts studied over 44,000 men. Moderate drinkers had a 37% lower risk of CHD.52
  • British doctors studied a large number of of women. Moderate drinkers had  lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors.5
  •  Researchers studied over 5,000 women with type 2 diabetes. CHD risk was much lower among moderate drinkers than abstainers. Those who drank more than about one-third glass a day had a reduced risk of CHD by over half.54
          Large Study
  • Scientists analyzed nearly 88,000 men. Drinking reduced risk of CHD. This was true among both diabetics and non-diabetics. For diabetics, weekly drinking reduced CHD risk by 33%. Daily drinking reduced it by 58%. For non-diabetics, weekly weekly reduced risk by 18%. In addition, daily drinking reduced it by 39%.55
  • A study in JAMA examined light to moderate type 2 diabetic drinkers. Their risk of CHD was lower by as much as 80%. That is in comparison to abstainers.56
  • Researchers did a large study. They found a 49% reduction in CHD among men who drank in moderation.57
  • Harvard researchers found that having one or two drinks a day is beneficial. It corresponds to a redued risk of about 20-40%. The drinks could be beer, wine or spirits (liquor).58
          Six Countries
  • Researchers from six countries reported large reductions in death among moderate drinkers. Heart disease and total death rates were about one half or less in comparison to non-drinkers.59
  • Doctors followed over 6,000 persons for six to ten years. They found “when consumed in moderation, alcohol appears to protect against congestive heart failure.”60
  • Doctors studied men with high blood pressure. Those who averaged one to six drinks per week had a 39% lower risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Those who had one or two drinks each day had 44% less risk. Both were compared to abstainers.69
  • The American Heart Association concludes that the “Consumption of one or two drinks per day is associated with a [CHD] reduction in risk of approximately 30% to 50%.”61
  • After his analysis of the research, Dr. David Whitten reported his conclusion. Having one or two drinks a day dramatically reduces the chance of cardiac death. He said “We don’t have any drugs that are as good as alcohol.”62
  • Dr. Curtis Ellison wrote that “abstinence from alcohol is a major risk factor for CHD.”63

B. Alcohol Increases the Survivability of Heart Attacks.

Heart attack is the common name for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

  • Moderate drinking throughout the year before a heart attack reduces the risk of death. Moderate drinkers had the lowest death rate. It’s 32% lower compared to abstainers.64
  • Men who have two to four drinks daily after a heart attack are less likely to have a second one. That’s comparison to abstainers. That’s what a study of 353 male heart attack survivors found. Men who had an average of two drinks per day were 59% less likely to have another heart attack. Those who drank an average of four drinks per day were 52% less likely, compared to abstainers.65
  • Coronary specialists completed a study of heart health.  Moderate drinking reduced the damage to effected tissue following a heart attack.66
  • Scientists made a five-year study of over 85,000 men. All had suffered previous heart attacks. Moderate drinkers showed a large drop in death rate in comparison to abstainers.67  

C. Alcohol Abstainers Who Begin Drinking Reduce Their Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

alcohol and healthA ten-year study analyzed 7,697 non-drinkers. During that time 6% began drinking in moderation. After four years, new moderate drinkers had a 38% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those who continued abstaining. Even after adjusting for physical activity, Body Mass Index (BMI), demographic and cardiac risk factors, this difference persisted.

This study is important. Alcohol itself causes the reduced risk of CVD among moderate drinkers. It’s not because of any differences in lifestyle, genetics, or other factors.68

D. Frequent Drinkers Enjoy Greater Heart-Health Benefits.

Doctors studied nearly 88,000 men. Drinkers had lower risk of CHD. For diabetics, weekly drinking reduced CHD risk by 33%. Daily drinking reduced the risk by 58%. For non-diabetics, weekly drinking reduced risk by 18%. And daily consumption reduced the risk by 39%.70

E. Alcohol vs. Exercising.

Researchers studied about 12,000 Danes for over 20 years. These are the results.

People who both drank moderately and exercised had the lowest risk of fatal heart disease. They had a 50% reduced risk in comparison to non-drinkers who didn’t exercise.

 Those who abstained from alcohol but exercised had a higher risk. And those who drank in moderation but didn’t exercise also had a higher risk. In both cases the risk of heart disease dropped about 30% in comparison to abstaining non-exercisers.

People who neither drank nor exercised had the highest risk. Their risk of dying from heart disease was twice as high as those who drank moderately and exercised.

Therefore moderate drinking and exercise are cumulative in their positive effects. Doing one is better than nothing. But doing both is the best of all. It greatly lowers the risk of death from heart attack. The same is also true for all-cause mortality.72

F. How Alcohol Promotes Good Heart Health.

Moderate drinking promotes good heart health in a number of ways. They include these.

Alcohol improves blood lipid profile. It73

Increases HDL (“good”) cholesterol.74
Decreases LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.75
Improves cholesterol particle size.76

Alcohol decreases thrombosis (blood clotting). It

Reduces platelet clumping.77
Reduces a blood clotter.78
Increases the process by which clots dissolve.79

Alcohol acts in other ways. It80

Reduces coronary artery spasm in response to stress.
Increases coronary blood flow.81
Reduces blood pressure.82
Reduces blood insulin level.83
Increases estrogen levels.84

For more on alcohol and heart health visit these.

Popular books on heart health.

V. Alcohol and Health: Strokes.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of having strokes.

  • Reviewers analyzed the results of of 26 research studies. People who had two drinks per day had a reduced risk of ischemic stroke.85
  • The American Stroke Association reports having up to two alcoholic drinks daily reduces stroke risk by about half.”86
  • MDs studied over 22,000 men. Light and moderate drinking greatly reduces the risk of stroke.87

        JAMA

  • A study in JAMA found having one or two drinks daily reduces the risk of stroke by about half.88
  • Research has found that moderate drinking raises HDL (“good” cholesterol) levels. This reduces stroke risk.89
  • A study in the American Heart Association’s journal found abstainers’ risk of stroke double that of moderate drinkers.90
  • The American Heart Association also reports that moderate drinkers tend to have large drops in stroke risk. This is among both men and women. Also regardless of age or race.91
  • A Spanish study examined 944 adults. Up to two drinks per day reduced the risk of strokes by 42%.94

 Abstainers Have Much Higher Risk of Stroke than Drinkers92

alcohol and health

For more on alcohol and strokes visit these.

Popular resources on alcohol and strokes.

VI. Alcohol and Health: Diabetes.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes.

  • alcohol and healthResearchers examined the results of 15 studies on diabetes. Moderate drinkers were less likely to have type 2 diabetes than abstainers. Also abstainers and heavy drinkers had equally high risk. The studies were in seven countries. They followed 369,862 persons for an average of 12 years. Moderate drinkers were 30% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes. That’s compared to abstainers or heavy drinkers. (Moderate drinkers had up to four drinks per day. That included women.)  Drinking frequently (such as daily) led to the most benefit.95
  • Analysts examined 13 studies. “The results of these studies are consistent with regard to moderate alcohol consumption. They indicate a protective effect in the order of 30%.” There was no evidence that high consumption of alcohol increased risk of diabetes.96
           32 Studies
  • Reviewers analyzed the findings of 32 studies. Compared to abstaining, having one to three daily drinks is healthful. Such drinkers have a 33% to 56% lower incidence of diabetes. And a 34% to 55% lower incidence of diabetes-related CHD.97
  • Researchers analyzed the resultsof 20 cohort studies. They found a U-shaped pattern between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. The researchers conclusion supported earlier research.”[M]oderate alcohol consumption is protective for type 2 diabetes in men and women.”98
  • The American Diabetes Association has drawn an important conclusion. “Diabetic light-to-moderate drinkers have a decreased risk of heart disease.”99
        Finnish Study
  • A Finnish study analyzed almost 23,000 pairs of Finnish twins. Moderate drinkers had half the risk of developing diabetes compared to those who drank less.100
  • Scientists studied 85,051 women. The risk of diabetes decreased as drinking increased. Compared with non-drinkers, those who had one-third to one drink per day had a 20% reduction in risk. Those who had over one drink per day had a 40% reduced risk of developing diabetes.101
  • A study of almost 21,000 male doctors tracked them for over 12 years. Men who were light to moderate drinkers had a lower risk of diabetes.102
  • MDs followed 8,663 men for as long as 25 years. The risk of diabetes was much lower among moderate drinkers. That’s compared to either abstainers or heavy drinkers. These findings persisted after adjusting for other risk factors.103
           Harvard Study
  • A Harvard study involving about 110,000 women age 25 to 42 continued over ten years. Reduced risk of about 60% occurred among those who drank between 1/2 and two drinks daily. That’s compared with abstainers. Reduced risk was less for those who drank less.104
  • A study in The Netherlands tracked women age 40-70 for an average of over six years. Moderate alcohol drinkers had much  lower risk of diabetes.105
  • Research in Italy found that alcohol improved the action of insulin in diabetics. It also improved fatty acid levels.106
  • A study of 5,221 men in Britain followed them for almost 17 years. The risk of diabetes was lowest for light and moderate drinkers.107
  • And the list of research evidence about the positive effects of moderate drinking on diabetes continues.108

For more on alcohol and diabetes visit these.

Popular books on alcohol and diabetes.

VII. Alcohol and Health: Alzheimer’s & other Dementia.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of dementia.

  • alcohol and healthA study in France looked at moderate drinkers. They had a 75% lower risk of Alzheimer’s Disease. And an 80% lower risk of senile dementia than abstainers.109
  • Researchers studied 7,460 women age 65 and older. Those who had up to three drinks per day had much better cognitive function scores than non-drinkers. Tested was concentration, memory, abstract reasoning, and language. They controlled for possible confounders.110
  • Researchers in Australia studied 7,485 people age 20 to 64. Moderate drinkers did better than abstainers on all measures of cognitive ability. Sex, race, education and personality failed to account for the findings.111
  • Scientists studied over 1,000 persons age 65 and older for over seven years. Light and moderate drinkers had less mental decline than non-drinkers.112
          Older Women  
  • Clinicians made a long-term study of 12,480 women age 70-81. Those who drank daily were about 20% less likely than abstainers to have poor memory and thinking abilities.113
  • Researchers studied 6,000 people age 65 and older. Moderate drinkers had a 54% lower risk of dementia than abstainers. The dementia included  Alzheimer’s.114
  • Scientists studied 7,983 people aged 55 of age or older in The Netherlands. They followed them for an average of six years. Those who had  one to three drinks of per day had a much lower risk of dementia than abstainers.115
  • Doctors studied over 400 people at least 75 years old for six years. Drinkers were only half as likely to develop dementia as abstainers. The dementia included Alzheimer’s.116
          Moderate Drinking
  • Moderate drinking among older women can benefit memory. Those who were moderate drinkers did better on measures of thinking and memory. On all measures, drinkers did better than abstainers. Moderate drinking was having up to two drinks per day. That’s up to twice the US advised rate.117 
  • Researchers completed a study of 1,018 persons age 65-79 measuring their physical and mental health. It did so for an average of 23 years. Either abstaining  or drinking heavily increased risk of cognitive impairment.  
  • In the U.K. investigators made a study of over 6,000 adults. Those who had as little as a single drink per week had greater cognitive functioning than non-drinkers. Abstainers were twice as likely as occasional drinkers to receive the lowest cognitive test scores. The beneficial mental effects of alcohol increased with consumption.118
           Italian Study
  • Italian researchers did a study of 15,807 men and women 65 and older in Italy.. Only 19% of drinkers had mental impairment. That compared to 29% of abstainers. Controlling other factors changed nothing.119
  • Clinicians completed an 18-year study of Japanese American. Moderate drinking predicted better cognition later in life. Both abstaining and heavy drinking predicted  worse cognition.120
  • Doctors made a study of 9,000 women age 70 to 79 over 15 years. Moderate drinkers, compared to abstainers, had better mental function. Doctors controlled for relevant factors. The effect of moderate drinking was  equivalent to being one to two years younger.121
  • An analysis of the research found that moderate drinking reduces cognitive decline. Abstaining from alcohol and abusing it increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.122      

For more on alcohol and dementia visit these.

Popular resources on dementia.

VIII. Alcohol and Health: Arthritis.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of arthritis.

  • alcohol and healthA European study found that alcohol was linked with a large reduced risk of forming arthritic conditions. They included rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondylarthropathy.123
  • Doctors made a large study in Sweden. The risk of arthritis decreased as drinking alcohol increased from light to moderate levels.124

         Scandinavian Study

  • Clinicians made two other studies in Scandinavia. They then combined the data. Among drinkers, the quarter with the highest consumption levels had a decreased risk of RA of 40-50%. That’s in comparison to the half with the lowest consumption.125
  • Scientists studied 1,877 persons. Drinking reduced both the risk and severity of RA. Non-drinkers were four times more likely to get RA. That’s compared to people who drank on more than ten days a month. The risk of RA decreased with the frequency of alcohol consumption.126
  • Researchers made a study of 1,666 patients in Finland. Drinking greatly reduced the risk of RA.127

For more on alcohol and RA visit these.

Popular books on arthritis.

IX. Alcohol and Health: Enlarged Prostate  (BPH).

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of developing enlarged prostate.

  • Reviewers analyzed 19 published studies. The studies  included over 120,000 men. Those who had two or more drinks a day had a 35% lower risk of developing BPH.128
  • Dieticians completed a study of men. Those who had two or more drinks per day were 33% less likely to develop BPH than abstainers.129
          29,386 Men
  • Doctors studied 29,386 men age 40-75 for eight years. Those who had up to about 3.3 drinks per day had a 41% reduced risk of BPH. That’s more than US advises.130
  • Researchers studied 882 men age 65, 70, 75 and 80. The more men drank, the lower was their risk of BPH.131
  • Doctors studied 6,581 Japanese American men for 17 years. Drinking reduced the risk of obstructive uropathy caused by BPH. Men who drank an average of 1.3 drinks per day had a 36% reduced risk. That compared with abstainers.132
  • MDs studied 1,369 men in Italy younger than age 75. Those who had fewer than three drinks per day had a 12% lower risk than abstainers. Those who had seven or more drinks per day had a 35% lower risk of BPH. The risk was similar for beer, wine, and spirits. 133
  • Doctors made a case-control study of 100 Chinese patients over 60 with BPH. They used a control group same size. Men who drank had a 35% reduced risk of BPH compared with non-drinkers. That far exceeds US guidelines.134  
  • MDs studied 142 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. 68.3% had BPH. Over twice the proportion without BPH were drinkers.135
            34,694 Subjects
  • Doctors analyzed data from 34,694 subjects. The more men drank, the lower was their risk of BPH.136
  • Researchers made a study of 184 BPH patients and 246 control patients. Drinking did not increase BPH risk.137
  • MDs made a case-control study of Chinese men. Those who had about two to three drinks per day had a 35% reduced risk. Those who had over four drinks per day had a 38% reduced risk of BPH. That’s compared to abstainers. This far exceeds US guidelines for drinking.138

        Older Men

  • Scientists studied 2,797 men age 60 or older. Those who drank daily had a 41% lower chance of lower urinary tract symptoms than non-drinkers.139
  • Doctors studied BPH among 2,036 volunteers. They followed them for 12 to 21 years. The risk of BPH dropped as drinking increased.140
  • MDs made a case-control study of 910 people and 2,003 controls. Alcohol reduced the risk of BPH.141
  • Scientists followed 1,700 men for a mean of nine years. Alcohol was not a risk factor for BPH.142
  • Korean doctors did a community based study of 514 men in that country. Those who drank more had a lower risk of BPH.143
  • Researchers studied 14,897 CA men. Those who had three or more drinks per day had a 25% lower risk of BPH than non-drinkers. These exceed US guidelines.144

For more on alcohol and BPH.

Popular Resources on Enlarged Prostate

X. Alcohol and Health: Osteoporosis.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of developing osteoporosis.

  • Researchers analyzed 33 studies. Drinking increased neck bone density for each drink per day over the range of 0-3 drinks per day. Alcohol reduced the risk for hip fracture with increasing drinking. Drinkers generally had reduced bone loss over time. That’s compared to abstainers.145
  • Scientists studied identical female twins. One twin drank very little and the other twin drank moderately. Twins were used because they are genetic clones. They have the same genes and grew up in the same environment. Thus, it’s easier to control for other possible confounders. Moderate drinkers had much denser bones. That’s compared to the control group of of very light drinkers.146
          200,000 Women
  • Doctors studied over 200,000 women after menopause in the US. Drinking reduced the risk of osteoporosis.147
  • Analysts used data from 13,512 persons ages 20 or older. Bone density was higher in men and postmenopausal women drinkers. That’s compared to abstainers.148
  • Researchers studied 5,865 adults aged 65 years and older. Moderate drinkers had a large decrease in risk of hip fracture. In comparison to long-term abstainers, moderate drinkers had a 22% lower chance of osteoporosis.149

For more on alcohol and osteoporosis

For popular resources on osteoporosis see these.

    • A.D.A.M., Inc. Osteo. (Video)
    • Calton, M. Beating Osteoporosis.
    • Hoffmann, G. Osteo. (Juv)
    • Kanopy (Firm). Living with Osteo. (Video)
    • Osteo Sourcebook.

XI. Alcohol and Health: Gallstone & Gallbladder Disease.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of developing gallbladder disease (GD).

  • alcohol and healthDoctors in the UK followed 1,290,413 women for over six years. Drinking decreased the risk of GD. Women who had 15 or more drinks per week had a 41% reduced risk. That’s in comparison to one to two drinks per week. That’s over the advice of the US.150
  • Scientists analyzed data on 58,462 Italians adults age 25 and over. They controlled for age, sex, and other factors. The scientists compared drinkers to abstainers. Those who had up to about 1.3 drinks each day had a 17% decreased risk of gallstone disease. Drinkers who had from 1.3 to 2.8 drinks daily had a 33% decrease. Those who had more than 2.8 drinks each day had a 42% drop in risk.151

         88,837 Women

  • Clinicians  followed 88,837 women aged 34 to 59 for four years. Those who drank daily had a 40% decreased risk of gallbladder disease.152
  • Italian doctors studied 29,584 Italian men. Daily moderate drinkers had greatly lower risk of gallstone disease. That was compared to non-drinkers.153
  • Researchers followed a total of 80,898 women in the US for 20 years. As drinking increased, risk  of gallstone disease decreased. In comparison to abstainers, those who drank up to one drink per day had a 14% decrease in risk. Those who drank an average of four or more drinks per day had a 38% reduced risk. Frequent drinking greatly decreased risk. That’s four times the US advice.154

Popular books on gallbladder disease.

XII. Alcohol and Health: Cancers.

Drinking alcohol in moderation reduces the risk of developing kidney, non-Hodgkin, Hodgkins, and thyroid cancers. It has no impact on the risk of developing virtually all other cancers. See Alcohol and Cancer Risk.

A. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma).

  • Researchers analyzed data from 12 studies of 760,044 persons whom had been tracked for seven to 20 years. Moderate drinkers were about 30% less likely to develop kidney cancer than abstainers.155
  • A study of 59,237 Swedish women age 40-76 followed them over time. Those who had at least one drink per week had a 38% lower risk of kidney cancer. That’s incompared to abstainers or those who drank less. For those over 55, the risk dropped by 66%.156
  • Doctors studied large cohort of Finnish men. The risk of kidney cancer declined as drinking increased.157

           Both Women and Men

  • Researchers tracked 88,759 women for 20 years. They also studied 47,828 men for 14 years. Alcohol reduced the risk of kidney cancer in both sexes.158
  • Compared with non-drinkers, men who drank one or more drinks per day had a 31% lower risk of kidney cancer. This was among 161,126 subjects.159
  • An Iowa study of postmenopausal women followed them over 15 years. Those who drank had a much lower risk of kidney cancer. That’s compared to non-drinkers,160

For more on alcohol and kidney cancer

Popular books on kidney cancer.

B. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma).

  • Analysts reviewed the findings from nine international studies. Drinking reduced the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) by 27%.161
  • Doctors made a study of 473,984  persons. Drinkers had a much lower risk of NHL than abstainers. Those who drank over 28 drinks per week had risk about 25% lower. That’s much over the US limit for drinking.162
  • Researchers studied a cohort of 35,156 women aged 55-69 for over nine years. Drinkers had a much lower risk of NHL compared with abstainer.163
  • Doctors did a case-control study of US adult. Drinkers had a much lower risk of NHL than did nondrinkers.164
  • Researchers did a case-control study in non-Mediterranean European countries. Drinking greatly reduced the risk of NHL among people in those countries.165

For more on alcohol and non-Hodgkin lymphoma see these.

For popular books on lymphoma see these..

C. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL).

  • Doctors did a case-control study of subjects in Europe. Their results were “consistent with previous studies, suggesting a protective effect of alcohol on HL.”166
  • German researchers made a case-control study. Alcohol reduced risk of HL for both men and women. For men it dropped 53%.167
  • Italian doctors studied non-smokers. Drinking reduced risk of HL.168
  • Analysts examined data from Northern Italians. Drinking reduced the risk of HL among both smokers and non-smokers.169
  • A common symptom of HL is pain in the lymph nodes. This is reduced after drinking alcohol.170

Popular books on lymphoma.

D. Thyroid Cancer.

  • UK researchers studied 1,280,296) women. Drinking greatly reduced the risk of thyroid cancer.171
  • Doctors analyzed data from 490,000 persons in the US. Increased drinking decreased the risk of thyroid cancer.172
  • Researchers made a country-wide study in New Caledonia. Drinking lowered the risk of of thyroid cancer.173
  • Doctors studied women in Washington State. Higher drinking led to lower risk of thyroid cancer.174

For more on alcohol and thyroid cancer.

And here are popular books on thyroid cancer.

E. Moderate Drinking Has No Impact on Cancer of these.

XIII. Alcohol and Health: Other Diseases.

Drinking alcohol in moderation appears to reduce the risk of developing many other diseases and health problems.

Common Cold.

Moderate drinkers are more resistant to viruses of the common cold. Those who had two to three drinks per day had an 85% greater resistance. And those having one to two had a 65% reduced risk. Finally, those drank less than daily had a 30% lower risk than abstainers.175

Intermittent Claudication (IC).

Doctors made a study of 18,339 IC observations. Moderate drinking greatly reduced the risk of IC. Furthermore, IC increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease two- to four-fold.176

Metabolic Syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that increase the odds for coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. Doctors analyzed seven studies of 22,000 persons. Drinking in moderation greatly reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome.177

Peripheral Artery Disease.

Harvard researchers found moderate drinkers to have an almost 1/3 lower risk than infrequent drinkers. Peripheral Artery Disease is a major cause of death among the elderly.178 In addition, a review of research found that moderate drinking reduced risk of the disease.189

The list continues with many others, such as these.

    • Essential tremors.179
    • Hepatitis A.180
    • Kidney stones.181
    • Macular degeneration.182
    • Pancreatic cancer.183
    • Parkinson’s disease.184
    • Poor physical condition in the elderly.185
    • Stress and depression.186
    • Type B gastritis.187

What Is Moderate Drinking?

Medical researchers generally describe moderation as one to three drinks per day. Those who have less than about half a drink per day generally have small health benefits. Four or five drinks may be moderate for large individuals but excessive for small or light people.

Women are generally smaller and have other biological differences. So the typical woman should generally have 25 to 30 percent less than the average man.114 However, alcoholics, those with adverse reactions to alcohol, and those advised against drinking by their physician should abstain.

The NIAAA has considered moderation this way. It’s a man having two per day. For women, it’s one per day. Yet it varies greatly around the world. The scientific facts are the same world-wide. What’s not the same are cultures, beliefs, religions, and attitudes. These are reflected in guidelines around the world.

Important Fact about Alcohol and Health

alcohol and health
Standard Drinks

Here’s another fact for alcohol and health. Many people think that distilled spirits (liquor) is more alcoholic. But it doesn’t have more pure alcohol.

Standard drinks have the same amount of pure alcohol. Each has six-tenths of an ounce. So they’re all the same in terms of alcohol!

Diet Pyramids

Learn more about the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.

alcohol and the Mediterrianian diet
Mediterranean Diet

The Harvard School of Public Health,  WHO and Oldways released this pyramid. Both tradition and current science are its basis. Of course wine is the traditional beverage of the Mediterranean. So it suggests wine. But research finds that beer and spirits are just as beneficial to health. In fact, the most helpful ingredient in alcoholic beverages is the alcohol itself.

Drinking Pattern Important

In a word, drinking patterns are important. “The key to healthy, moderate consumption is a regular, one to three drinks per day pattern.”117 But drinking a “weeks worth” of alcohol in a day would be unhealthful.

In brief, the health benefits of drinking apply to moderate drinking. On the other hand, heavy drinking, poor health and shorter life go together. So there really can be too much of a good thing.

In summary, Salud! Skoal! A votre sante’! Prost! L’chayim! Or, in English, “to your health!” But all in moderation.

XIV. Resources: Alcohol and Health

Notes

    • This site gives no advice. Please see your doctor for alcohol and health advice.
    • Food Pyramid by permission of Oldways.

Footnotes: Alcohol and Health

1. Ford, G. The Benefits of Moderate Drinking, p. 20.

2. Cabot, R. The relation of alcohol to arteriosclerosis, JAMA, 1904, 43, 774-775.

4. Moore, R., and Pearson, T. Moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease. Med., 65 (4), 242-267.

5. Highlights of the NIAAA position. Press release from the journal, Alco: Clin Exper Res.

6. Am Heart Assn website.

7. Pearson, T. Alcohol and heart disease. Circ., 94, 3023-3025.

8. Wilkie, S. Global overview of drinking guidelines. AIM Digest, 2-4, 4.

9. Ellison, R. Here’s to your health. Wine Spec., 34-46.

10. Highlights of the NIAAA position paper on moderate alcohol consumption. Press release from the journal, Alc Clin Exper Res.

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11. Di Castelnuovo, A., et al. Alcohol dosing and total mortality. Arch Inter Med., 1066, 2437-2445.

12. La Porte, R., et al. Coronary heart disease and total mortality. Rec. Dev Alco., 3, 157-163.

13. Camargo, C. et al. Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and mortality. Arch Inter Med., 157, 79-85.

14. Yuan, J, et al. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men. Brit Med J., 314, 18-23.

15. Fuchs, C., et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among women. New Eng J Med., 332(19), 1245-1250.

16. Doll, R., et al. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol. Brit Med J, 309, 911-918.

17. Klatsky, A., et al. Alcohol and mortality. Ann Inter Med., 95(2), 139-145. Facts for alcohol and health.

18. Boffetta, P., and Garefinkel, L. Alcohol drinking among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epide., 1(5), 42-48.

19. Maskarinec, G., et al. Alcohol intake, body weight, and mortalit. Epi., 9(6), 654-661.

20. Gaziano, J. et al., Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality. J Am Coll Cardi., 35(1), 96-105.

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21. Farchi, G., et al. Alcohol and survival in the Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Int J Epide., 29, 667-671.

22. Maraldi, C., et al. Impact of inflammation on the relationship among alcohol consumption, mortality, and cardiac events. Arch Inter Med., 166(14), 1490-1497.

23. McCaul, K, et al. Alcohol use and mortality in older men and women. Addict.

24. Lee, S. et al. Functional limitations, socioeconomic status, and all-cause mortality in moderate alcohol drinkers. J Am Geron Soc., 57(6), 995-962.

25. Stergaard P., et al. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Euro Heart J.

26. McCallum, J., et al. The Dubbo Study of the Health of the Elderly. Sydney, NSW: Aust Health Pol Inst.

27. de Groot, L. and Zock, P. Moderate alcohol intake and mortality. Nutr Rev. 56(1, pt. 1), 25-26.

28. Dodson, R. Alcohol prevents more deaths than it causes. Inde News (UK) 5-23-14.

29. Britton, A., and McPherson, K. Mortality in England and Wales attributable to current alcohol consumption. J Epid Comm Hlth., 55(6), 383-388.

30. Cancer Coun of SW website. Also see Relationship of alcohol consumption to all-cause mortality in U.S. adults. J Am Coll Cardi, 70(8), 913–922. And Van den Brandt, P. and Brandts, L. Alcohol consumption in later life and reaching longevityAge Age, 49(3), 395–402. 

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31. Longnecker, M., and MacMahon, B. Alcoholic beverage consumption and hospitalization. Am J Pub Hlth., 78(2), 153.

32. Wiley, J., and Comacho, T. Life-style and future health. Prev Med., 9, 1-21.

33. Power, C., et al. U-shaped relation for alcohol consumption and health in early adulthood and implications for mortality. Lancet, 352, 9131.

34. Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. et al. [Rationale and methods of the study on nutrition and cardiovascular risk in Spain (ENRICA)] J Epide Comm Hlth, 55, 648-652. Norton, A. Any Alcohol in Moderation May Boot Health: Study, Reuters Health, Aug 16, 2021.

35. Richman, A., and Warren, R. Alcohol consumption and morbidity. Drug Alco Depen., 15, 255-282.

36. Vasse, R., et al. Association between work stress, alcohol and sickness absence. Addict., 93 (2), 231-241.

37. Green, C. and Polen, M. The health and health behaviors of people who do not drink alcohol. Am J Prev Med., 21(4), 298-305. Important for alcohol and health.

39. Goldberg, D., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption. Clin Biochem., 32(7), 505-518.

40.  Mostofsky, E., et al. Key findings on alcohol consumption and a variety of health outcomes from the Nurses’ Health Study.  Am J Pub Health, 106(9), 1586-1591.

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41. Moore, R., and Pearson, T. Moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease. Med., 65 (4), 242-267.

46. Vliegenthart, R., et al. Alcohol consumption and coronary calcification. Arch Inter Med., 164, 2355-2360.

47. Suzuki, K., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and better endothelial function. BMC Card. Discord., 9, 8.

48. Price, J. Light drinking lowers bad proteins. Wash Times, Feb 11, 2014.

49. Hennekens, C. Alcohol and Risk of Coronary Events. In: NIAAA. Alcohol and the Cardiovascular System.

50. Manson, J., et al. The primary prevention of myocardial infarction. New Eng J Med, 326(21), 1406-1416.

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51. Sesso, H, et al. Seven-year changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Arch Inter Med., 160, 2505-2612.

52. Rimm, E., et al. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men. Lancet. 338, 464-468.

53. Razay, G., et al. Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in British women. Brit Med J., 304, 80-83.

54. Solomon, C., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among women with type 2 diabetes. Circ., 102, 494-499.

55. Ajani, U., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease by diabetic status. Circ., 102, 500.

56. Valmidrid, C., et al. Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. JAMA, 282(3), 239-246.

57. Blackwelder, W., et al. Alcohol and mortality. Am J Med, 68(2), 164-169.

58. Manson, J., et al. Prevention of Myocardial Infarction.

59.  Grobbee, D., et al. Alcohol and cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Canad J Cardiol, v 13, Supp B.

60. Walsh, C., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk for congestive heart failure. Ann Inter Med., 136(3), 181-191.

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61. Pearson, T.  Alcohol and heart disease. Circ., 94, 3023-3025.

62. Ford, G. The French Paradox and Drinking for Health. Pp. 26-27.

63. Chiva-Blanch, B. and Badimon, L. Benefits and Risks of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease. Nut, 12(1),108.

64. Mulcamel, K., et al. Alcohol consumption after myocardial infarction. JAMA, 285(15), 1965-1970. Also Alcohol and AMI. Am J Nurs, 101(8), 18.*

65. de Lorgeril, M., et al. Wine drinking and risks of cardiovascular complications aft recent acute myocardial infarction. Circ, 106, 1465-1469.

66. Dayton C., et al. Antecedent ethanol prevents postischemic P-selectin expression in murine small intestine. Microcirc, 11, 709-718.

67. Gaziano, J., et al. Potential mortality benefits for drinkers with previous heart attacks.  Lancet, 352, M 1882-1885.

68. King, D., et al. Adopting moderate alcohol consumption in middle-age: Subsequent cardiovascular events. Ame J Med, 121(3).

69. Malinski, M., et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality in hypertensive men. Arch Int Med, 164(6), 623.

70. Anani, U., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease by diabetes status. Circ, 102, 500-505.

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72. Pedersen, A., et al. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Euro Heart J, 29(2), 204-212.

73. Rimm, E., et al. Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease. Brit Med. J., 319, 1523-1528.

74. Doll, R. One for the heart. Brit Med J, 315, 1664-1668. And Paassilta, M., et al. Social alcohol consumption and low Lp (2) lipoprotein concentration. Brit Med J, 316, 594-595.

75. Paassilta, M., et al. Social alcohol consumption and low Lp (2) lipoprotein concentration. Brit Med J, 316, 594-595.

76. Mukamal, K.. et al. Alcohol consumption and lippoprotein subclasses in older adults. J Clin Endocrin Metab. PMID: 17440017.

77. Zhang, Q., et al. Effects of acute, moderate alcohol consumption on human platelet aggregation. Alco: Clin Exper Res., 24, 528-534.

78. Mennen, L., et al. Fibrinogen may explain in part the protective effect of moderate drinking on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterio Throm Vas Bio., 19, 887-892.

79. Sumi, H., et al. Urokinase-like plasminogen activator increased in plasma after alcohol drinking. Alc Alc., 23, 33-43.

80. For discussion, see Ellison, R. Does Moderate Alcohol Consumption Prolong Life? NY: Am Coun Sci Health, p. 7.

81-90

81. Israel, Y., et al. Acetate-mediated effects of ethanol. Alc Clin. Exp. Res., 18(1), 144-148.

82. MacMahon. Alcohol consumption and hypertension. Hyper., 9(2), 111-121.

83. Bell, D. Alcohol and the NIDDM patient. Diab Care, 19(5), 509-513.

84. Vliegenthart, R., et al. Alcohol consumption and coronary calcificationArch Int Med., 164, 2355-2360.

85. Patra, J., et al. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types. BMC Pub Hlth.,10, art No 258, 12 pp.

86. stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=PREGUIDE

87. Berger, K., et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of stroke. New Eng J Med., 341(21).

88. Sacco, R., et al. The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke, JAMA., 281, 53-60.

89. Sacco, R., et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ichemic stroke in the elderly. JAMA., 285, 2729-2735.

90. Rodgers, H. et al. A case-control study of drinking habits past and present. Stroke, 24(10), 1473-1477.

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91. Berger, K., et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke. New Eng J Med., 341(21), 1557-15

92. Rodgers, H. et al. A case-control study of drinking habits past and present. Stroke, 24(10), 1473-1477.

94. Caicoya, M., et al. Alcohol and stroke. J Clin Epid., 52(7), 677-684.

95. Kopper, L., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes. Diab Care, 28, 719-725.

96. Carlsson, S., et al. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. Diab, 48(6), 1051-1054.

97. Howard, A., et al. Effects of alcohol consumption on diabetes mellitus. Ann Int Med., 140(3), 211-219.

98. Baliunas, D., et al. Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes. Diab Care, 32(11), 2123-2132.

99. Wheeler, M., et al. Is there a place for alcohol in your diabetes meal plan? Diab Fore.

100. Carlsson, S., et al. Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diab Care, 26(10), 2785-2786.

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101. Stampfer, M., et al. A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women. Am J Epid., 128(3), 549-558.

102. Ajani, U., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Int. Med., 160, 1025-1050.

103. Wei, M. et al. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diab Care, 23(1), 18-26.

104. Tanner, L. Light to moderate drinking cuts diabetes risk in women, too. AP, Nat Diabetes Info Clearinghouse.

105. Beulens, J., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among older women. Diab Care, 28, 2933-2938.

106. Avogaro, A., et al. Acute alcohol consumption improves insulin action without affecting insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diab Care, 27(6), 1369-1374.

107. Wannamethee, S., et al. Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes. J Epid Comm Hlth., 56(7), 542-548.

108. For example, Rimm, E., et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men. Brit Med. J., 310, 555-559. Also Cordain, L. et al. Influence of moderate daily wine consumption upon body weight regulation and metabolism. J Am Coll Nut., 16(2). Also Truelsen, T., et al. Intake of beer, wine and spirits and risk of stroke. Stroke, 29(12), 2468-2472. Also Calcoya, M., et al. Alcohol and stroke. J Clin Epid., 52, 577-684. And Gill, J., et al. Stroke and alcohol. New Eng J Med., 315(17).

109. Orogozo, J., et al. Wine consumption and dementia in the elderly. Revue Neuro., 153.

110. Espeland, M., et al. Association between alcohol intake and domain-specific cognitive function in older women. Neuroepid., 1(27), 1-12.

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111. Rodgers, B., et al. Non-linear relationships between cognitive function and alcohol consumption. Addict., 100(9), 1280-1290. Also Anstey, K. , et al. Lower cognitive test scores and demographic, personality, and biological factors. Addict., 100(9), 1291-1301.

112. Ganguli, M., et al. Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in late life. Neuro., 65, 1210-12.

113. Stampfer, M., et al. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women. New Eng J Med., 352, 245-253.

114. Mulkamal, K., et al. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of dementia in older adults. JAMA, 289, 1405-1413.)

115. Ruitenberg, A., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. Lancet, 359(9303), 281-286.

116. Huang, W., et al. Alcohol consumption and incidence of dementia. J Clin Epid., 55(10), 959-964.

117. U TX at Austin. Moderate drinking in older adult women has positive influence on memory. News release.

118. Matthews, R. Alcohol sharpens your brain, say researchers. The Tele, Aug 1, 2014.

119. Zuccala, G., et al. Dose-related impact of alcohol consumption on cognitive function in advanced age. Alco Clin Exper Res., 25, 1743-1748.

120 Galanis, D., et al. A longitudinal study of drinking and cognitive performance. Am J Pub Hlth., 90, 1254-1259.

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121. Harrison, P. Moderate Drinking Helps Preserve Women’s Brains. Reuters Health, June 15, 2021.*

122. Funk-White, M. et al. Alcohol use and cognitive performance. Age Ment Health, 2021. Also Shen, Y. et al. Association of Low to Moderate Alcohol Drinking With Cognitive Functions. JAMA Network Open. 2020, 3(6), 7922. And Zhang, Y. et al. Association between alcohol consumption in midlife and cognitive function in old age. Nut Meta Cardio Dis, 2021,  31(11), 3044-3053.

123. European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), eular.org.

124. Turesson, C. Increased Alcohol Intake Associated with Decreased Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis. (Abstract) Ann EurCongr Rheuma. Barcelona, Spain. June 13-16, 2017.

125. Kallberg, H., et al. Alcohol consumption and decreased risk of RA. Ann Rheu Dis., 68(2), 222-228.

126. Maxwell, J., et al.  Alcohol consumption and risk and severity of RA. Rheu.

127. Ye, D. et al. Lifestyle factors associated with the incidence of RA in U.S. adults. BMJ Open, 2021,11(1).

128. Parsons, J., and Im, R. Alcohol consumption and decreased risk of BPH. J Urol., 182(4), 1463-1468.

129. Kristal, A., et al. Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic BPH. Am J Epid.

130. Platz, E., et al. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of BPH. Am J Epid., 149(2), 106-115.

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131. Gass, R. BPH. BJU Int., 90(7), 649-654.

132. Chyou, P., et al. A study of alcohol, diet, and other lifestyle factors to obstructive uropathy caused by BPH. Prostate, 22(3), 253-264.

133. Crispo, A., et al. Alcohol and the risk of prostate cancer and BPH. Urol., 64(4), 717-722.

134. Ning, X., et al. [A case-control study on the risk factors of BPH]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 24(4), 276-280.

135. Tarcan, T., et al. Are cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and hypercholesterolemia risk factors for clinical BPH? OCLC #281636287

136. Kang, D., et al. Risk behaviours and BPH. BJU Int., 93(9), 1241-1245.

137. Signorelli, L., et al. The epidemiology of BPH. BJU Int., 84(3), 286-291.

138. Zhi-quan, L., et al. [Association of alcohol consumption, body mass index with BPH]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 23(12), 1471-1472.

139. Rohrmann, S., et al. Association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity with lower urinary tract symptoms. BJU Int., 96(1), 77-82.

140. Glynn, R. The development of BPH. Am J Epi., 121(1), 78-90.

141-150

141. Morrison, A. Risk factors for surgery for prostatic hypertropy, Am J Epid., 135, 974-980. Important for alcohol and health of men.

142. Meigs, J., et al. Risk factors for clinical BPH. J Clin Epid., 54(9), 935-944.

143. Lee, A., et al. A high-risk group for prostatism. Brit J Urol., 79(5), 736-741.

144. Sidney, S., et al. Incidence of surgically treated BPH and of prostate cancer. Am J Epid., 134(8), 825-829. Also, Paolone, D. BPH. Clin Geriat Med, 2010, 26(2), 223-239. And Parsons, J., and Im, R. Alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of BPH. J Urol, 182(4), 1463-1468.

145. Berg, K., et al. Alcohol and both osteoporotic fracture and bone density. Am J Med., 121(5), 406-418. Facts for alcohol and health of women.

146. Williams, F., et al. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on bone mineral density. Ann Rheu Dis.

147. Siris, E. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone density in women after menopause. JAMA., 286(22), 2815-2822.

148. Wosje, K., and Kalkwarf, H. Bone density in relation to alcohol intake. Osteo Int., 18(3), 391-400.

149. Sommer, I., et al. Alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in elderly women. Pub Hlth Nutri., 16(4),704-712.

150. Liu, B., et al. Separate and joint effects of alcohol and smoking on the risks of cirrhosis and gallbladder disease (GD) Am J Epid., 169(2), 153-160.

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151. La Vecca, C., et al. Alcohol drinking and prevalence of self-reported GD. Epid., 5(5):533-6.

152. Maclure, K, et al. Weight, diet, and the risk of symptomatic gallstones. New Eng J Med., 321, 563-569.

153. Attili, A., et al. Diet, and gallstones in Italy. Hepa., 27(6), 1492-1498.

154. Wirth, J. et al. A healthy lifestyle pattern and the risk of symptomatic GD, Am J Clin Nutri, 112(3), 586–594. 

155. Lee, J. , et al. Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer (RCC). J Nat Can Inst., 99, 811-822.

156. Rashidkhani, B., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of RCC. Int J Can., 117(5), 848-853.

157. Mahabir, S., et al. Study of alcohol drinking and RCC risk. Can Epid Biomark  Prev., 14, 170-175.

158. Lee, J., et al. Total fluid intake and use of individual beverages and risk of RCC. Can Epid Biomark Prev., 15, 1204-1211.

159. Setiawan, V., et al. Risk factors for RCC. Am J Epid., 166(8):932-940.

160. Nicodemus, K., et al. Evaluation of dietary, medical and lifestyle risk factors for incident kidney cancer. Int J Can., 108(1), 115-121.

161-170

161. Morton, L., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lancet Oncol.

162. Lim, U., et al. Alcohol, smoking, and body size in relation to incident Hodgkin’s and NHL risk. Am J Epid., 166(6), 697-708.

163. Chiu, B., et al. Alcohol consumption and NHL. Brit J Can., 80(9), 1476-82.

164. Nelson, R., et al. Alcohol, tobacco and recreational drug use and the risk of NHL Brit J Can., 76(11), 1532-1537.

165. Besson H., et al. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and NHL. Int J Can., 119(4), 901-8.

166. Besson, H., et al. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Brit J Can., 95, 378-384.

167. Nieters, A., et al. Tobacco and alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoma. Int. J. Can., 118(2), 422-430.

168. Gorini G, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Oncol., 18, 143-148

169. Deandrea, S., et al. Reply to “Alcohol consumption and risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.” Ann Oncol., 18(6):1119-1121.

170. Hodgkin’s Disease Symptoms. about-blood -disorders.com site.

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171. Allen, N., et al. Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women. J Nat Can Inst., 101(5), 296-305.

172. Meinhold, C., et al. Alcohol intake and risk of thyroid cancer (TC). Brit J Can., 101(9), 1630-1634.

173. Guignard, R., et al. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for TC. Am J Epid., 166(10), 1140-1149.

174. Note. Moderate drinking reduces the chance of dying from cancer. That is, from all-cancer death! For example, Jin, M. et al. Alcohol drinking and all-cancer mortality: a meta-analysis. Ann of Oncol,  24, 07-816.

175. Cohen, S., et al. Smoking, alcohol consumption and susceptibility to the common cold. Am J Pub Hlth., 83(9), 1277-1283.

176. Djousse, L., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of intermittent claudicating. Circ., 102, 3092.

177. Vidot, D., et al. Alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. Metab  Syndr Relat Disord.

178. Vliegenthart R. et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease. Am J Epi., 155(4), 332-338.

179. Boecker, H., et al. The effect of ethanol on alcoholic-responsive essential tremor. Ann Neurol., 39, 650-658.

180. Desenclos, J., et al. The protective effect of alcohol on the occurrence of epidemic oyster borne hepatitis A. Epid., 5, 525-532.

181-189

181. Hirvonen, T., et al. Nutrient intake and use of beverage and the risk of kidney stones among male smokers. Am J Epid., 150, 187-194.

184. Hellenbrand, W., et al. Diet and Parkinson’s disease. Neurol., 306, 1,506-1,509.

185. Nelson, H., et al. Smoking, alcohol and neuromuscular and physical function of older women. JAMA., 272(23), 1825-1831.

186. Kushner, M., et al. The effects of alcohol consumption on laboratory-induced panic and state anxiety. Arch Gen Psych., 53, 264-270.

187. Brenner, H., et. al. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active H pylori infection. Brit Med J., 315, 1389-1492.

188. Perdue, L., and Shoemaker, W. The French Paradox and Beyond. Sonoma: Renaissance. P. 63.

189. Wakabayashi, I. and Sotoda, Y. [Alcohol drinking and peripheral arterial disease of lower extremity]. Nihon Aruk Yak Iga Zas, 49(1), 13-27.

Notes
  • Now you know about alcohol and health! And much, more more than most people.
  • This site gives no advice