Alcohol harm paradox: lower socioeconomic people drink the same or less than others but have more alcohol-related problems. Some people think that more drinking in a population leads to more alcohol-related problems. But that’s very a simplistic belief.
World-wide research shows that countries with higher drinking rates generally have fewer drinking problems. That’s in comparison to those countries where drinking is lower.1
In addition, the paradox is a good example of this fact within countries.
DON’T BE FOOLED! A beer has the same amount of alcohol as a glass of dinner wine or a shot of whiskey. It’s 6/10th of an ounce in each case.
Researchers generally state social status in terms of socioeconomic status or SES. They calculate it by some combination of income, occupation, and/or education.2
The paradox is found around the world. It’s found in socialist, communist, and capitalist economies. In developed and developing countries. It’s found under dictators and freely elected leaders. In short, it’s everywhere. That fact makes it harder to understand.
I. Possible Reasons
There are a number of possible reasons for the paradox. They include these.3
- Drinking patterns differ. For example, having two daily drinks (14 weekly) promotes good health5 and longer life.6 However, having 14 drinks one night easily leads to many problems. So-called bingeing occurs more often among lower SES groups.
- Unhealthful behaviors. These include smoking, poor diet, “bingeing,” and fighting. Also excess weight, poor exercise, and dangerous jobs. These are more common among lower SES groups.
- Methods problems. These include such things as erroneous government statistics and inaccurate self-reports.
All of these could contribute to the paradox. If so, however, the exact degree now remains unknown.
II. Resources: Alcohol Harm Paradox
Bellis, M. et al. The alcohol harm paradox. BMC Pub Health, 2016, 1-10.
Lewer, D. et al. Unravelling the alcohol harm paradox. BMC Pub Health, 2016, art #599.
- Peele, S. Utilizing cultural and behaviour of alcohol consumption and consequences. Alco Alco, 1997, 32(1), 51-64.
- Berzofsky, M. et al. Measuring Socioeconomic Status (SES). Washington: Dept Justice, 2014.
- Beard, E. et al. Alcohol Harm Paradox. PLoS One, 2016, 11(9), e0160666.
- Boyd, J. Beyond behaviors. SHAAP/SARN Alcohol Occasional, 20 Jan 2021.
- Alcohol and Health
- Drinkers Live Longer