What is a binge? Do we binge on TV? On food? And what is binge drinking? Is it an epidemic? What about on college campuses?
II. Newer Definition
III. Extent of “Binge Drinking”
IV. Binge Drinking Misperceptions
To most people, binge drinking is a self-destructive drinking bout lasting at least a couple of days. During that time the drinker “drops out.” The binger stops working or going to class. Ignores responsibilities. Squanders money. And does other harmful things. Perhaps fighting or having risky sex.
This view is consistent with the usage of doctors, psychologists, and other clinicians. It is the “prolonged use and the giving up of usual activities ” that defines binge drinking.1 Without that, it’s not a binge.
II. Newer Binge Drinking Definition
But some people began re-defining bingeing. They said it was having five or more drinks on an occasion. An “occasion” can be an entire day and evening. They soon modified it to be four or more drinks by a woman on an occasion.2
Consider this. A woman has two glasses of wine with her leisurely dinner. She then sips two drinks over the course of a four or five-hour evening. In the view of most people, she would be acting responsibly. Indeed, her blood alcohol concentration (BAC) would stay low. She probably wouldn’t be able to feel the effects of the alcohol. But she’s a binge drinker! At least according to the newer definition.
The new definition suddenly “created” widespread binge drinking. First it was on college campuses. Than among retirees. And then in the entire population. It was now everywhere.
Bingeing was now an epidemic. This created new perceived needs. Researchers needed to study the problem. Experts needed to make recommendations. Consultants needed to present workshops. And they all needed money. Lots of it.
Alcohol researchers and activists were suddenly in demand. They became highly paid speakers. They worked as consultants. And they investigated this new danger. Binge drinking threatened not only to our children. It threatened the future of the country. We must act. And now.
New Definition Misleading
But other researchers urged restraint. They said the new definition was misleading. Even worse. They said it was harmful to brand drinking in moderation as bingeing.3 The New York Times noted the irony. People who follow guidelines for moderate drinking could carry the stigma of binger! 4 They could have to take unnecessary “treatment.” Or they might face punishment for normal behavior.
How useful is such an unrealistic definition? It is very useful if the intent is to inflate the extent of a problem. And it would please members of the Prohibition Party. It would also please members of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. (Both of which still exist.) But it is useless if the intent is to describe reality to the average person. A prohibitionist definition to describe drinking is inappropriate.
We should define binge drinking in a realistic way. Perhaps as intoxication that leads to certain harmful behaviors. Or specify the period of time during which a person is under intoxication. Perhaps we should require intoxication before labeling a “binger.”
Strong criticisms of its faults led to revisions. An example is the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). It now defines binge drinking as having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08.5 No conduct problems are necessary. There is no concern for time period. The “binger” could easily be quietly enjoying an evening with friends. But at least it’s an improvement over the “new definition.”
Some researchers and groups now define binge in different ways. But they’re all far different from the medical and clinical definition. They’re all far different from the understanding generally held by the public. These unrealistic definitions share one thing in common. They are misleading at best.
The conclusion is clear. Be very skeptical the next time you hear about “binge” drinking. Were the people really bingeing? By any reasonable definition, most almost certainly were not.
III. Extent Of “Binge” Drinking
Most people think that binge drinking is increasing. That it’s an epidemic among young people. But the fact is otherwise. So-called binge drinking among young people is clearly declining. It has been dropping for many years.
As seen here, “binge” drinking among high school seniors has declined from 41.2% to 22.1% between 1980 and 2013. That’s a drop of almost one-half. Surveys of eighth and tenth graders began in 1991. Since that time, the proportion of eighth graders who “binge” has fallen about one-half. Among tenth graders it has fallen from 21.0% down to 13.7%.6
Similarly, the proportion of “binge” drinking young adults one to four years beyond high school has dropped greatly since 1980.7
Adolescents in the U.S. who “binge” drank during the previous month fell 30.3% between 2008 and 2013.8 The incidence of such drinking has been below the federal government’s Healthy People 2020 target since 2010.
The facts are clear. “Binge” drinking is down. Alcohol abstinence is up. This is true among both school and college students in the U.S. Yet the false impression persists that we’re suffering an epidemic of bingeing.
IV. Binge Drinking Misperceptions: The Harm
This misperception is dangerous. Many young people go off to college falsely thinking that “everybody” is drinking and bingeing. They are then more likely to drink and to “binge” to conform. Correcting this misperception is important. The results of surveys of actual student behavior correct misperceptions. This empowers students to abstain. Or to drink much less. That’s what most students really want to do. In this way, heavy drinking drops quickly.9
Exaggeration Makes Problem Worse
Too many college students still abuse alcohol. But those who exaggerate the problem make it worse. They are part of the problem. Not the solution. To further reduce the problem, we have to publicize the actual facts. We need to correct harmful misperceptions. This will empower students to do what they generally want to do. That is, to drink less or not drink at all.
Many people and groups have a vested interest in inflating the extent of “binge” drinking. But scare tactics are actually counter-productive. The most effective way to reduce alcohol abuse is simply to tell the truth. And to make sure young people know the truth.
V. Resources: Binge Drinking
Alcohol Scare Tactics Not Effective Not Effective.
Effective Way to Reduce Alcohol Abuse.
What is Social Norms Marketing? It Works.
1. Schuckit, M. The editor responds. J. Stud. Al., 1998, 123-4.
3. Dimeff, L., et al. To the editor. JAMA, 1998, 273(24), 1903-4.
4. The Attack on Campus Drinking. New York Times, Sept. 27, 1999, p. A26.
6. Johnston, L., et al. Monitoring the Future National Results on Drug Use: 1975-2013. Ann Arbor: ISR, U. Mich, 2014, Table 8, p. 68.
7. ______________. Table 9-4, p. 396-397; Figure 9-14d, p. 420.
8. SAMSHA. Behavioral Health Barometer. Rockville, MD: SAMSH, 2015, p. 5.
9. Turner, J., et al. Declining negative consequences related to alcohol misuse among students. J. Am. Coll. Hlth, 2008, 57, 85-94. Moreira, M., et al. Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. Cochrane Database, 3, 2009. Scribner, R., et al. Alcohol prevention on college campuses. J. Stud. Alc. Drugs, 2011, 72, 232, 239.