Most alcohol research uses potentially inaccurate self-reports to gather data on consumption. However, a much more accurate technique is now being used to determine the actual extent of alcohol use and abuse. In particular, college drinking reality.
Researchers at the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center are doing ground-breaking studies.
Instead of relying on self-reports of consumption, the UNC team is now measuring actual blood alcohol concentration (BAC) with breathalysers.
Compares Apples with Apples
This technique compares “apples with apples.” And even if self-reports were completely accurate, the results from using them would still be unclear. That’s because of differences between people, drinking rates, and many other factors.
For example, women who have the same amount of alcohol under identical conditions as men will have higher BACs. For people of different sexes, sizes, and other conditiond, the effects can be dramatic.
The University of North Carolina research technique eliminates all those serious problems. For the UNC team, BAC is the bottom line and it doesn’t lie.
The researchers gave breathalyser tests to about 1,800 UNC students as they returned home at night. They found that the large majority of college students tested appear to be light or very moderate drinkers. Of course, this is contrary to popular belief.
Seventy-two percent, almost three out of four, had no alcohol in their bloodstreams. The traditional party times are Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights. Yet even on these nights 66% returned home with no alcohol in their blood.
Two of every three had no BAC. Yet we constantly hear about is how many students are “binge” drinking. About how many are abusing alcohol. And about how many are dying from doing so.
But they weren’t surprised by the results. Other breathalyser studies they’ve have done with drivers and recreational boaters showed similar results. Specifically, much less drinking than is generally believed. Clearly, we have substantial misperceptions in this country about the extent of alcohol use and abuse.
Many say we are unaware of the problem. However, we actually tend to see it as much worse than it really is. To a large degree, this gross distortion of perception results from the widespread use of the misleading term “binge drinking.”
Traditionally and medically, binge refers to a period of continuous intoxication lasting for at least a couple of days. However, many use it to refer to having as few as five drinks (four for a woman). And that can be over the course of an entire day and evening.
The person doesn’t have to be intoxicated. Doesn’t even have to have enough alcohol to feel its effects. In short, a “binger” can be completely sober! Moderate, responsible drinkers are counted as bingers. This inflates the numbers. That’s a completely misleading use of the term. And its a large part of the public’s distorted view of alcohol consumption.
Research by the UNC team has clearly made a major contribution in cutting through all the hype and distortion. It provides an accurate picture of what’s happening — and what’s not happening — on college campuses. In short, on college drinking reality.
But the UNC team has also shown other researchers the importance of replacing self-reports with actual BAC readings. And doesn’t simply apply to college campuses. We know that people tend to under-report their drinking. So this approach is also useful in studies elsewhere.
We certainly can’t develop effective policies and programs to reduce abuse if they’re based on faulty information and beliefs. More researchers should follow the lead of the UNC team.
Resources on College Drinking Reality
Correia, C., et al. College Student Alcohol Abuse. A Guide to Assessment, Intervention, and Prevention. Hoboken: Wiley, 2012.
Fearnow-Kenney, M. Alcohol Use and Harm Prevention. A Resource for College Students. Greensboro, NC: Tanglewood, 2005.
Seaman, B. Binge. What Your College Student Won’t Tell You. NY: Wiley, 2005.