Drinking Alcohol and Cancer Risk: You’ll be Surprised.

What’s the relationship between consuming alcohol and cancer risk? The answer lies in the specific cancer. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of some cancers. It reduces the risk of others. But it has no effect on the risk of the vast majority of cancers.

Drinking alcohol, especially along with smoking, increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx and larynx.Fortunately, these cancers are all very rare. In total, these cancers cause only 1% of all cancer deaths in the U.S.2

The moderate consumption of alcohol doesn’t increase the risk of the most common cancers listed by the National Cancer Institute.3 They’re below in alphabetical order. The exceptions are  breast and colorectal cancer. But both of those are inconclusive and controversial.

Overview

I.   Kidney Cancer

II.  Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

III. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

IV. Thyroid Cancer

V.   Breast Cancer

VI.  Colon/Rectum Cancer

VII. Liver Cancer

VIII.Other Cancers

IX.   Practical Implications

Bladder Cancer4    
Breast Cancer5
Colorectal Cancer6
Endometrial Cancer7
Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell)8
Leukemia9
Lung Cancer10
Melanoma11
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma12
Ovarian Cancer13
Prostate Cancer14
Skin Cancer (Non-Melanoma)15

Of these, drinking in moderation reduces the risk of kidney cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

I. Alcohol and Cancer of the Kidney.

Drinking reduces the risk of kidney cancer.

  • alcohol and cancerModerate drinking reduces the risk of kidney cancer 30% compared to teetotalers (abstainers or non-drinkers). This was the finding of an analysis of 12 prospective studies involving 760,044 men and women. Researchers had tracked them for seven to 20 years.16
  • Epidemiologists conducted a large prospective study of 59,237 Swedish women. They found that light and moderate drinkers had a 38% lower risk of kidney cancer than did abstainers. For women over age 66, the risk dropped by two-thirds (66%).17
  • Analysts studied a large cohort of Finnish male smokers. They found that risk of kidney cancer declined as alcohol consumption increased.18
  • Doctors studied 88,759 women and tracked them for 20 years. They also studied 47,828 men for 14 years. The results suggest that alcohol reduces the risk of kidney cancer in both men and women.19
  • Compared to nondrinkers, men who drank one or more drinks per day had a 31% lower risk of kidney cancer. Oncologists found this among 161,126 Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort participants.20
  • Researchers studied postmenopausal women in Iowa over a 15-year period. They found that those who drank aalcohol had a significantly lower risk of developing kidney cancer. This was in comparison to abstainers. The relationship persisted after researchers took into account many other potential confounding factors.21

II. Alcohol and Cancer: Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

Alcohol reduces the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • alcohol and cancerA review of research from nine international studies was performed. It found that drinking alcohol reduces the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma by an average of over one-fourth (27%). For developing the form of non-Hodgkin’s known as Burkitt’s lymphoma, the risk for drinkers drops about half compared to teetotalers.22
  • A very large prospective study examined lifestyle factors among 473,984 participants. They were 285,079 men and 188,905 women. It found that drinkers had a significantly lower risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma than did nondrinkers. For example, among those who had over 28 drinks weekly, the risk was about 25% lower than among nondrinkers. This relationship existed for beer, wine and distilled spirits.23
  • A cohort of 35,156 women aged 55-69 years participated in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Oncologists followed them over a nine-year period. As alcohol consumption increased, risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased significantly. The amount of alcohol consumed, rather than the form of alcoholic beverage appeared to provide the protection against the disease.24 
  • A population-based case-control study of adults from four U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Study centers. Researchers found that those who drank alcohol had a significantly lower risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma than did nondrinkers.25
  • Researchers made a multi-center case-control study in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland and the Czech Republic. They found that drinking significantly reduced the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma among men. The same was true among people living in non-Mediterranean countries.26

III. Alcohol and Cancer: Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

Drinking reduces the risk of developing Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

  • Drinking alcohol reduced the risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) for both men and women. But it did so more so for men. They lowered their risk by 53%. Researchers did the population-based case-control study in Germany.27
  • Researchers conducted a population-based case-control study in Italy. They found a protective effect of alcohol consumption on risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma among non-smokers .28
  • Drinking alcohol reduced the risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma among both smokers and non-smokers. Researchers found  this in an analysis of data from a series of case-control studies in northern Italy.29
  • Doctors made a study of subjects in Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Ireland and the Czech Republic. They found results “consistent with previous studies, suggesting a protective effect of alcohol on HL.”30 (HL is  Hodgkin’s lymphoma.)
  • Drinking alcoholic beverages reduces the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. But it also has another advantage. It reduces a common symptom of the disease, pain in the lymph nodes. This is reduced following the consumption of alcohol.31

IV. Alcohol and Cancer of the Thyroid

Drinking alcohol reduces the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  • alcohol and cancerDoctors did a country-wide population-based case-control study in New Caledonia. They found that the incidence of thyroid cancer went down as drinking went up.32 The findings were true for both men and women.
  • Statisticians analyzed data from almost one-half million (490,000) men and women in the U.S. They found that increased alcohol consumption decreased the risk of thyroid cancer.33
  • Oncologists found that women who drank higher levels of alcohol had lower risk of developing thyroid cancer. They identified participants through the Cancer Surveillance System (CSS). It’s a cancer registry in Washington State.34
  • Epidemiologists did a prospective study of over one and one-quarter million (1,280,296) women in the U.K. Their findings confirmed that drinking alcohol is protective against thyroid cancer.35

V. The Alcohol and Cancer of the Breast Debate

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has analyzed the medical evidence about alcohol and cancer of the breast. It concludes that “The effect of alcohol on the risk for breast cancer remains controversial.” It describes it as “inconclusive.”36 The National Cancer Institute does not alcohol  a risk factor in its Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. 37

Some studies find a relationship between alcohol and increased risk of breast cancer. Some find no relationship. Others find that alcohol reduces the risk of breast cancer. See Drinking  and Cancer of the Breast.  

Specific Breast Cancers

It appears that drinking alcohol increases the risk of invasive ductal carcinoma. That’s a major form of breast cancer. However, drinking does not increase the risk of these breast cancers.

  • Inflammatory breast cancer (the most aggressive and dangerous breast cancer).38
  • Basal-like carcinoma breast cancer.39
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma breast cancer.40
  • Medullary carcinoma breast cancer.41
  • Mucinous carcinoma breast cancer.42
  • Pagets disease (cancer of the nipple).43
  • Phyllodes breast tumors.44
  • Triple-negative breast cancer.45
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast.46
  • Papillary carcinoma of the breast.47
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast cancer.48
  • Hereditary breast cancer.49
  • Metaplastic breast cancer.50
  • Male breast cancer.51
Risk

Fortunately,  consuming adequate folate (folic acid or vitamin B-9) may reduce or even eliminate any increased risk of breast cancer.52

The overall risk of breast cancer is low. “A typical 50-year-old woman has a five-year breast cancer risk of about 3 percent. If her risk jumps by 30 percent, her individual risk is still only about 4 percent.”53  The risk of dying from heart disease is about twelve times greater than from breast cancer.

The moderate consumption of alcohol reduces the risk of dying from heart disease by as much as over half. So the National Cancer Institute recommends that women discuss the matter with their doctors.

VI. Alcohol and Cancer of the Colon/Rectum.

There’s a lack of medical consensus about whether or not alcohol consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The following  conclude that it is not. The National Cancer Institute.54 National Library of Medicine.55 American Society of Clinical Oncology,56 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.57 Cancer Research.58

Alternatively, the American Cancer Society59 suggests that “heavy use”may increase the odds of the disease. The Mayo Clinic60 suggests that “heavy drinking” may do the same.

VII. Alcohol and Cancer of the Liver.

alcohol and cancerAlcohol consumption is not listed as a risk factor for liver cancer by the American Cancer Society62 and the American Society of Clinical Oncologists.63 But it is listed by the Mayo Clinic (“excessive alcohol consumption”).64 And also by About.com. (“excessive, long-term alcohol use”).65

The reason for the difference in considering whether or not alcohol is a risk factor is simple. It’s clear that alcohol itself doesn’t cause liver cancer. However, heavy and abusive alcohol consumption over a period of many years is one of the causes of alcohol cirrhosis. (The others are hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus). It is the liver cirrhosis itself that is one of the risk factors for liver cancer.

The usual scenario is an individual with alcoholic cirrhosis who has stopped drinking for ten years. The person then develops liver cancer. It is somewhat unusual for an actively drinking alcoholic to develop liver cancer.

What happens is simple. When the drinker stops consuming, the liver cells try to heal by regenerating (reproducing). It is during this active regeneration that a cancer-producing genetic change (mutation) can occur. This explains the occurrence of liver cancer after the drinking has stopped.66

VIII. Other Cancers

There is medical consensus that alcohol is not a risk factor for any of the following cancers. Below is an alphabetical list.

                  A

Acral lentiginous melanoma. (67)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). (68)
Acute myleoid leukemia (AML). (69)
Adamantinoma (70)
Adenoid cancer (71)
______ cystic carcinoma. (72)
______ cystic carcinoma of the breast. (73)
Adenomatoic odontogenic tumor. (74)
Adenocarcinoma of the lung. (75)
Adrenocortical carcinoma (76)
Adrenal gland cancer. (77)
Alveolar Soft Part Carcinoma. (78)
Ampullary carcinoma (79)
Anal cancer (80)
Anaplastic thyroid cancer. (81)
Angiosarcoma (82)
Appendix cancer (83)
Astrocytoma (84)
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. (85)

B

Bartholin’s gland cancer. (86)
Basal cell carcinoma. (87)
Basal-like carcinoma of the breast. (88)
B-cell leukemia (89)
Bile duct cancer (90)
Bladder cancer (91)
Bone cancer (92)
Brain cancer. (93)

C

Cancer of unknown primary origin. (94)
Carcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater. (95)
Carcinoma with t(15;19) translocation. (96)
Cardiac sarcoma (97)
Central nervous system (CNS) cancer.(98)
Cervical cancer (99)
Childhood  acute myeloid lymphoma. (100)
______ astrocytoma (101)
______ brain stem glioma. (102)
______ central nervous system (CNS) cancer. (103)
______ rangiopharyngioma. (104)
______ ependymoma (105)
______ Ewing’s family of tumors. (106)
______ Hodgkin’s lymphoma. (107)
______ lymphoblastic leukemia. (108)
______ medulloblastoma (109)
______ neuroblastoma (110)
______ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. (111)
______ osteosarcoma (112)
______ rhabdimyosarcoma. (113)
______ Wilms tumor (114)
Chordoma (115)
Choriocarcinoma (116)
Choroidal melanoma. (117)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (118)
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). (119)
Chrondosarcoma (120)
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. (121)
Crangiopharyngioma (122)

D

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. (123)
Demoplastic infantile ganglioma.
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor. (124)
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast cancer. (125)

E

Ear cancer1 (26)
Endometrial cancer (127)
Ependymoma (128)
Eosinophilic leukemia. (129)
Esthesioneuroblastoma (130)
Extragonadal germ cell cancer. (131)
Extrahepatic bile duct cancer. (132)
Ewing’s family of cancers. (133)
Eye cancer (134)
Eyelid cancer (135)

F

Fallopian tube cancer. (136)
Familial adenomatous polyposis. (137)
Familial malignant melanoma. (138)

G

Gallbladder cancer (139)
Gastrinoma (140)
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. (141)
Gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors. (142)
Germ cell tumor of the brain. (143)
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (144)
Glucagonoma (145)

H

Hairy cell leukemia. (146)
Hemangioendothelioma (147)
Hepatoblastoma (148)
Hereditary breast cancer. (149)
______ diffuse gastric cancer. (150)
______ leiomyomatosis. (151)
______ non-polyposis colorectal cancer. (152)
______ non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma. (153)
______ papillary renal cell carcinoma. (154)
HIV and AIDs-related cancers. (155)
Hurtle cell carcinoma (156)

I

Inflammatory breast cancer. (157)
Insulinoma (158)
Intraocular melanoma (159)
Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. (160)

K

Kaposi’s sarcoma (161)
Keratoacanthoma (162)
Kidney cancer (163)

L

Lacrimal gland cancer. (164)
Large cell cancer of the lung. (165)
Leiomyosarcoma (166)
Leukemia (167)
Liver cancer (168)
Lung cancer (169)
Lymphangiosarcoma (170)

Lymphoma. (184)

M

Male breast cancer. (171)
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. (172)
______ melanoma (173)
______ mesothelioma (174)
Mastocytosis (175)
Medullary carcinoma of the breast. (176)
Medullary thyroid cancer. (177)
Medulloblastoma (178)
Melanoma (179)
Meninglioma (180)
Merkel cell carcinoma. (181)
Metaplastic breast cancer. (182)
Mucinous carcinoma of the breast. (183)
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, Type 1. (185)
______ endocrine neoplasia, Type 2. (186)
______ myeloma (187)
MYH-associated polyposis (MAP). (188)

N

Nasal cavity cancer. (189)
Nasopharynageal cancer. (190)
Neurolblastoma (191)
Neuroendocrine tumor (192)
Neurofibromatosis (193)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (194)
Non-small cell lung cancer. (195)

O

Oligodendroglioma (196)
Oral malignant melanoma. (197)
Osteosarcoma (198)
Ovarian cancer (199)

P

Paget’s disease of the nipple (breast cancer). (200)
Pancreatic cancer (201)
Papillary carcinoma of the breast. (202)
Paraganglioma (203)
Paranasal sinus cancer. (204)
Parathyroid cancer (205)
Penile cancer (206)Pheochromocytoma (207)
Phyllodes breast tumors. (208)
Pineal region tumor. (209)
Pituitary gland cancer. (210)
Plasma cell leukemia. (211)
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (212)
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors. (213)
Prostate cancer (214)

R

Rectal cancer (215)
Retinoblastoma (216)

T

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (217)
Salivary gland cancer. (218)
Sebaceous gland carcinoma. (219)
Scrotal (soot wart) cancer. (220)
Skin cancer (221)
Small intestine cancer. (222
Soft tissue cancers. (223)
Somatostatinoma (224)
Spine or spinal cancer. (225)
Squamous cell carcinoma. (226)
Squamous cell lung cancer (227)
Synovial cell sarcoma. (228)
Stomach cancer (229)

T

T-cell leukemia (230)
Temporal bone cancer. (231)
Testicular cancer (232)
Testicular germ cell tumors. (233)
Thymoma (234)
Thymus cancer (235)
Thyroid cancer (236)
Transitional cell cancer of renal pelvis. (237)
Triple-negative breast cancer. (238)
Tubular carcinoma of the breast. (239)

U

Ureter cancer (240)
Urethra or urethral cancer (241)
Uveal melanoma (242)

V

Vaginal cancer (243)
Vulvar cancer (244)
Verrucous carcinoma (245)

W

Waldenstrom macroglobulinema (246)
Wilms tumor (247)

IX. Alcohol and Cancer: Practical Implications.

Drinking alcohol is not a risk factor for developing most cancers. On the other hand, the moderate consumption of alcohol leads to better health and greater longevity. That’s  in comparison to either abstaining from alcohol or drinking abusively.

The NIAAA has recommended that a man consume no more than four drinks on any day. And no more than an average of 14 drinks per week. For women, it’s no more than three drinks in any one day. And an average of no more than seven drinks per week.

These are standard alcoholic drinks.

  • alcohol and cancerA 12-ounce can or bottle of regular beer.
  • A 5-ounce glass of dinner wine.
  • A shot (one and one-half ounces) of 80 proof liquor or spirits such as vodka, tequila, or rum).

It’s important to remember that standard drinks contain equivalent amounts of alcohol. To a breathalyzer, they’re all the same.

No form of alcohol (beer, wine, or spirits) appears to confer greater health benefits than another.

 

Popular Resources on Dealing with Cancer

Crocker, B. Betty Crocker Living with Cancer Cookbook. Hoboken: Wiley, 2014.

Elit, L., and Carter, K. Bearing Witness: Living with Ovarian Cancer. Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier U Press, 2009.

Gafni, R. Ramy Gafni’s Beauty Therapy. The Ultimate Guide to Looking and Feeling Great while Living with Cancer. NY: Evans, 2005.

Harrison, T. In-between Days. A Graphic Memoir about Living with Cancer.Toronto: Anansi, 2016.

Hurley, T. Living With Cancer. Argo-Navis, 2014.
WorldCat

Kanopy (firm). Living with Breast Cancer. San Francisco: Kanopy, 2016. eVideo.

______ Cancer. Living with Bowel Cancer. San Francisco: Kanopy, 2014. eVideo.

______ Living with Prostate Cancer. San Francisco: Kanopy, 2016. eVideo.

Krychman, M. 100 Questions and Answers for Women Living with Cancer. A Practical Guide for Survivorship. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

Lindenmuth, K., et al. Caring for the Caregivers. Living with Cancer. Libra Verde, 2014. DVD video.

McCauliffe, B. Cancer [living with]. Mankato, MN: Creative Ed, 2012. (Juvenile)

Schoenberg, M. The Guide to Living with Bladder Cancer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2001.

Slomski, G., and Reichek, J. Living with Cancer. Minneapolis: ABDO, 2012. (Juvenile)

Scholarly Readings on Alcohol and Cancer Risk.

Allen, N., et al. Moderate intake of alcohol and cancer incidence in women. J Nat Can Inst, 2009, 101(5), 296-305.

Bagnardi, A., et al. A meta-analysis of drinking alcohol and cancer risk. Brit J Can, 2001, 85(11), 1700-1705.

Bofetta, P. and Hashibe, M. Alcohol and cancer. Lancet (Oncology), 2006, 7(2), 149-156.

Bofetta, P., et al. The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol drinking. Int J Can/J Int Can, 2006. 119(4), 884-887.

Breimer, L. and Theobald, H. Re: Moderate intake of alcohol and cancer incidence in women. J Nat Can Inst, 2009, 101(15), 1093.

Cho, C. and Purohit, V. Tobacco, Alcohol and Cancer. Basel & NY: Karger, 2006.

Hampton, T. Alcohol and cancer. JAMA, 2005, 294(12), 1481.

Hausdorf, K., et al. Prevalence and correlates of multiple cancer risk behaviors. Can Cause Control, 2008, 19(10), 1339-1347.

Homann, N. and Seitz, H. Alcohol’s effect on the development and progression of cancer. Nutrit Clin Care, 2000, 3(2), 83-89.

Inoue, M., et al. Alcohol drinking and total cancer risk.  Jap J Clin Oncol, 2007, 37(9), 692-700.

Lewis, S. Alcohol as a Cause of Cancer. Eveleigh, N.S.W., Aust: Can Inst NSW, 2008.

McPherson, K. Moderate consumption of alcohol and cancer. Ann Epidem, 2007, 17(5), S46-S48.

Poschi, G. and Seitz, H.K. Alcohol and cancer. Alco Alco, 2004, 39(3), 155-165.

Seitz, H.K. and Becker, P. Metabolism of alcohol and cancer risk. Alco Res Health, 2007, 30(1), 38-47.

Wang, X.-D. Vitamin A, alcohol and cancer. Alco, 2005, 35(3), 251.

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117.  Singh, P., and Singh, A. Choroidal melanoma. Oman J Ophthalmol,  2012, 5(1), 3’“9.
118. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Risk Factors.
119. Risk Factors for Chronic Myleoid Lymphoma (CML).
120. Possible Causes of Bone Cancer.
121. Lal, N., and Singhai, A. Clear cell sarcoma of kidney. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol,  2011, 32(3), 157’“159.
122. Crangiopharyngioma Risk Factors.
123. Mendenhall, W., et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Cancer, 2004, 101(11), 2503-2508.
124. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor.
125. Virnig, B., et al. Ductal carcinoma in situ: risk factors and impact of screening.  J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr, 2010, 41, 113-6.
126. Ear and Temporal Bone Cancer.
127. Risk of Endometrial Cancer.
128. Ependymoma.
129. Eosinophilic Leukemia Risk Factors.
130. Esthesioneuroblastoma.
131. Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors.
132. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Risk Factors.
133. Ewing’s Family of Tumor – Childhood.
134. Risk Factors for Eye Cancer.
135. Eyelid Cancer Risk Factors.
136. Fallopian Tube Cancer Risk Factors.
137. Causes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.
138. Causes of Familial Malignant Melanoma.
139. Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer.
140. Gastorinomas Causes and Symptoms.
141. Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.
142. Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
143. Germ Cell Tumors Risk Factors.
144. Risk Factors for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.
145. Glucagonoma Causes.
146. Hairy Cell Leukemia Risk Factors.
147. Hemangioendothelioma.
148. Buckley J., et al. A case’control study of risk factors for hepatoblastoma. Cancer, 1989, 64(5), 1169-76.
149. Hereditary Cancer – Causes and Risk Factors.
150. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer – Causes.
151. Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer.
152. Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer.
153. Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma.
154. Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma.
155. Cancers in HIV Infection.
156. Hurtle Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors.
157. Inflammatory Breast Cancer Risk Factors.
158. Insulinoma.
159. Intraocular Melanoma Risk Factors.
160. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast.
161. Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
162. Keratoacanthoma Causes.
163. Chow, W.-H., et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer. Nar Rev Urol, 2010, 7(5), 245-257.
164. Lacrimal Gland Tumor Risk Factors.
165. Large cell cancer of the lung.
166. Leiomyosarcoma.
167. Leukemia Risk Factors.
168. Risk Factors for Liver Cancer.
169. Lung Cancer Risk Factors and Prevention.
170. Lymphangiosarcoma.
171. Male Breast Cancer.
172. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma.
173. Westerdahl, J., et al. Risk of malignant melanoma in relation to drug intake, alcohol, smoking and hormonal factors. Brit J Cancer, 1996, 73(9), 1126-31.
174. Malignant Mesothelioma.
175. Mastocytosis Risk Factors.
176. Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast.
177. Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid.
178. Polkinghorn, W., and Tarbell, N. Medulloblastoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2007, 4, 295-304.
179. Melanoma.
180. Meninglioma Risk Factors and Prevention.
181. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors.
182. Metaplastic Breast Cancer Risk Factors.
183. Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast.
184. Ahmad, A., et al. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Am J Gastro, 2003, 98(5), 975-986.
185. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 1 Causes.
186. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 2 Causes.
187. Multiple Myeloma Risk Factors.
188. MYH-associated Polyposis (MAP).
189. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Risk Factors.
190. Nasopharynageal Cancer Risk Factors.
191. Neuroblastoma Risk Factors.
192. Neuroendocrine Tumor Risk Factors.
193. Neurofibromatosis.
194. Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
195. Non-small Cell Lung Cancer – Risk Factors.
196. Oligodendroglioma.
197. Oral Malignant Melanoma Risk Factors.
198. Bone Alcohol and CancerCancer.
199. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors.
200. Paget Disease of the Nipple.
201.    Pancreatic Cancer Risk.
202.   Pai, S., et al. Papillary carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010, 122(3), 637-645.
203. Paraganglioma. Risk Factors.
204. Risk Factors for Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers.
205. Parathyroid Cancer Risk Factors.
206. Risk Factors for Penile Cancer.
207. Pheochromocytoma Risk Factors.
208. Phyllodes Breast Tumors.
209. Pineal Tumors.
210. Pituitary Gland Cancer.
211. Plasma Cell Leukemia.
212. Pleuropulmonary Blastoma.
213. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors.
214. Prostate Cancer Risk Factors.
215. Rectal Cancer Causes and Risk Factors.
216. Risk Factors for Retinoblastoma.
217. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
218. Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer.
219. Risks and Causes of Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma.
220.McDonald, M., et al. Carcinoma of the scrotum. Urol, 1982, 19, 269-274.
221. Skin Cancer Risk Factors.
222. Chow, W.H., et al. Risk factors for small intestine cancer. Can Cause Cont, 1993, 4(2), 163-169.
223. Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

224  Somatostatinoma Risk Factors.
225. Spinal Tumor Causes.
226. Risk Factors for Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers.
227. Lung Cancer Cause s and Risk Factors.
228. Causes and Risk Factors of Synoval Cell Carcinoma.
229. Alcohol and Cancer of the  Stomach.  http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-stomach-cancer
230. T-cell Leukemia Risk Factors.
231. Ear and Temporal Bone Cancer.
232. Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours by histological tumour type. Brit J Cancer, 1999, 80(11), 1859-1863.
234. Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma.
235. Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer.
236. Navarro, S., et al. Risk factors for thyroid cancer: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2005, 1, 116(3):433-8.
237. Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis & Ureter.
238. Boyle, P. Triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol, 2012, 23 (suppl 6), vi7-vi12.
239. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast.
240. Ureter Cancer Risk Factors.
241. Urethral Cancer Risk Factors.
242. Uveal Melanoma Risk Factors.
243.  Vaginal Cancer.
244. Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer.
245. Spiro, R. Verrucous carcinoma, then and now. Am J Surg, 1998, 176(5), 393-7.
246. Groves, F., et al. Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. Cancer, 1998, 82(6), 1078-1081.
247. Risk Factors for Wilms Tumor.

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