Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease is important to post-menopausal women. Following menopause, cardiovascular disease and resulting death increase greatly.
I. The Disease
I. The Disease
III. The Study
Cardiovascular disease involves diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It includes heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, valve problems and stroke.
It is the number cause of death for both men and women. Cardiovascular disease causes more deaths than cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and accidents combined.
We can’t control our birth gender, age, or race. These and many other things influence our risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease. But lifestyle and cardiovascular disease are connected. And we can control important lifestyle factors.
II. Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Disease
What lifestyle factors increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death in women after menopause?
Not smoking, being physically active, maintaining proper weight, and drinking in moderation all reduce risk of CVD and death. However, the role each plays in reducing these risks among post-menopausal and older women is unclear.
It’s important that these are all behaviors over which we, as individuals, have control. Thus, we can all have better health and longer lives.
III. The Study
To learn more, researchers made a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. They analyzed 59 studies that involved 5,358,902 women.
Maintaining proper weight (body mass index or BMI) was also important in reducing those risks. Drinking alcohol in moderation greatly reduced risk as did being physically active.
These findings from over five million post-menopausal women are consistent with research on other populations.
Study reported. Colpani, V., et al. Lifestyle factors and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in middle-aged and elderly women: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Euro J Epidem, 2018, pre-publication.
IV. Resources on Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Disease
Cent Dis Cont. Smoking among Women: Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke. Atlanta: The Centers, 2006.
Ganzit, G. and Stefanini, L. Cardiovascular Diseases and Physical Activity. Torino : SEEd, 2012.
Kokkinos, P. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2010.
Mendis, S. Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. Geneva: WHO, 2011.
Nardo, D. Cardiovascular Disease and Diet. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent, 2015.
Villegas, A. and Sanchez-Tainta, A. The Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease through the Mediterranean Diet. London: Academic, 2018.
Robinson, M. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Hoboken: Informa, 2006.
Samaan, R. Dietary Fiber for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. London: Elsevier, 2017.
Watson, R. and Myers, A. Alcohol and Heart Disease. NY: Taylor & Francis, 2003.
Zeisel, S. and Kohlmeier, M. Diet, Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease. Chapel Hill, NC: Medeor, 2002.