Liquor in the 15th Century: History of Distilled Spirits

The history of liquor in the 15th century was one of gradual advance.

     This is Part of a Series

Liquor in the 20th Century.

Liquor in the 19th Century.

18th Century Liquor Developments.

Liquor in the 17th Century.

16th Century Liquor Developments.

Liquor in the 15th Century.

Earliest History of Liquor.

Distilled spirit of gin was generally flavored with juniper berries. The result was known as junever. That is the Dutch word for “juniper.” The French changed the name to genievre. The English changed to “geneva.” They then modified it to “gin.”2

Russians liked their grain spirit without the juniper flavor and named it vodka, or “little water.”3 The name brandy was derived from the Dutch “brandewijn.” That means burnt (or distilled) wine.4

Distilled spirits were largely used for medicinal purposes. Their use as social beverages grew slowly at first.5

Liquor in the 15th Century

1405
The first written reference to whisky appeared in the Irish Annals of Clonmacnoise.

1469

liquor in the 15th century
Juniper berries
  • “The Dutch were probably the earliest to to distill drinks other than wine, when they made the first gins.”6
  • “The first mention of a still in Sweden, where the first grain alcohol was made from beer, dates from 1469.”7

1493
On his second voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus planted sugar cane. It was at St. Croix in the Virgin Islands. This laid the basis for what would later become a booming rum industry.8
1494
The distilling of whisky in Scotland appears to have been well established. In the Exchequer Rolls of 1494, King James IV of Scotland granted a large amount of malt. It was “To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae.” The amount granted was enough to distill over 1,500 bottles of whisky.

The End of the Century

As the end of the century approached, drinking brandy recreationally rather than medicinally increased. This was especially true in Germany.9 Commercial production and sale had begun to appear.10

We’ve looked at liquor in the 15th century. Now it’s time to explore its story in the 16th  century.

Resources: Liquor in the 15th Century

Web
Popular Books
Endnotes

1  Hanson, D. Preventing Alcohol Abuse, p. 8.
2  Roueche, B. Alcohol in Human Culture. In: Lucia, S., (ed.) Alcohol and Civilization, pp. 173-174.
3 _______, p. 174.
4 Seward, D. Monks and Wine, p. 151. Roueche, pp. 172-173.
5 Watney, J. Mother’s Ruin: A History of Gin, p. 10. Doxat, J. The World of Drinks and Drinking, p. 98.
6 Sournia, J.  A History of Alcoholism, p. 17.
7. ______, p. 16.
8 Ford, G. Short History of the Art of Distillation, p. 17.
9 Braudel, F. Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800, p. 171.
10 Forbes, R. Short History of the Art of Distillation, p. 97.