KKK Supported Prohibition (Ku Klux Klan = KKK)

One of the major supporters of National Prohibition in the U.S. (1920-1933) was the anti-alcohol Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Indeed, the KKK supported Prohibition vigorously. It sometimes defended it violently.

The KKK’s defense of Prohibition explains much of its popularity during the 1920s. In fact, people across the country supported the Klan.

            Overview

I.  The KKK Supported Prohibition

II. Resources

I. The KKK Supported ProhibitionVery Strongly

kkk supported prohibition
Hiram Wesley Evans
    • Prohibitionists “revived [the KKK] in Atlanta in 1915 to defend Prohibition,” which existed in Georgia at that time.1
    • “Prohibition became one of the Klan’s leading issues”2 and the Klan strongly supported both Prohibition and its strict enforcement.3
    • The KKK “adopted prohibition as a central rallying cry.”4
    • “Enforcing Prohibition was a cornerstone of the KKK’s ‘reform’ agenda.”5
    • “Enforcement of Prohibition, in fact, was a central, and perhaps the strongest, goal of the Ku Klux Klan.”6
    • “Demon Rum… was the most obsessive issue on the Klan mind next to the pope.”7
    • The KKK’s “support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation.”8 (Emphasis in original.)
    • Because it so strongly “opposed the sale of alcohol,’9 the new KKK ‘attacked bootlegging.”10         

 Resurgence

    • KKK supported Prohibition
      KKK supported Prohibition

      “The Klan’s resurgence in the 1920s partially stemmed from their role as the extreme militant wing of the temperance movement. In Arkansas, as elsewhere, the Ku Klux Klan marked bootleggers as one of the groups it wanted to purge. In 1922, 200 Klansmen torched saloons that had sprung up in Union County. The national Klan office ended up in Dallas, Texas. But Little Rock was the home of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan. The first head of this female auxiliary was a former president of the Arkansas WCTU.”11           

Overlapping Membership

    • There was much interaction and overlap in membership between the KKK and other prohibition supporters. For example, a Klan leader, Edward Young Clarke, raised funds for both the KKK and the Anti-Saloon League.12
    • Its enforcement of prohibition was one of the factors “most responsible for the Klan’s great popularity.”13
    • The KKK challenged bootleggers by organizing armed patrols to intercept shipments of alcohol.14
    • “The Ku Klux Klan associated itself with the campaign against alcohol.’ One of the major KKK activities in the 1920s was rooting out bootleggers and breaking up speakeasies.”15
    • “[W]idespread were Klan efforts to put bootleggers out of business.”16

            Enforced Prohibition

    • The KKK tarred, feathered and ran bootleggers out of town.17
    • Williamson County in Illinois was the scene of great violence. “[B]attles between the operators of wide-open taverns and the ‘dry’ Ku Klux Klan killed 14 people in 1924-25.”18
    • Although Prohibition became increasingly unpopular with the passage of time, the KKK strongly and actively opposed its repeal.19
      In the 1920s, over 25 percent of native-born men in Indiana were official members of the KKK. The Klan’s membership was many times larger than any of the popular veterans’ organizations. It was even larger than the Methodist church, the state’s biggest Protestant denomination. And women’s auxiliaries added even more members.21

Prohibitionists in General

Prohibitionists in general often advocated strong measures against those who did not comply with Prohibition. One suggested that the government distribute poisoned alcohol beverages through bootleggers (sellers of illegal alcohol). The person acknowledged that several hundred thousand people would die as a result. But they thought the cost well worth the enforcement of Prohibition.

In fact, the US government did poison alcohol! It was industrial alcohol. It was to keep people from drinking it. But it didn’t work. Many thousands were killed as a result. Many more thousands were blinded or paralyzed.

Others suggested that those who drank should be.

    • Hung by the tongue beneath an airplane and flown over the country.
    • Exiled to concentration camps in the Aleutian Islands
    • Excluded from any and all churches.
    • Forbidden to marry.
    • Tortured.
    • Branded.
    • Whipped.
    • Sterilized.
    • Tattooed.
    • Placed in bottle-shaped cages in public squares.
    • Forced to swallow two ounces of caster oil.
    • Executed, as well as their progeny to the fourth generation.20

The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the U.S. That was one of its appeals from coast to coast.

A number of neo-temperance groups carry forward the anti-alcohol sentiment of the KKK (although not its methods).

II. Resources: KKK Supported Prohibition

By Geographic Location

PLEASE NOTE: General popular readings on the KKK of the 1920s follow this section.

The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the US. It even supported prohibition at the provincial level in Canada. Most of these resources suggest how pervasive the Klan became during Prohibition. In some areas it became an “invisible government.”

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is a non-profit cooperative library system. It helps libraries share materials. So many of the items below display an OCLC number.

1. Go to WorldCat.

2. Enter the number. (Numerals only. Don’t include OCLC or #.)

3. Click on “See all results….”

AL

Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949.

AZ

Abbey, S. The Klan in AZ, 1921-1925, 1971. OCLC #26989490.

Baker, T. The Ku Klux Klan in Phoenix, 1921-1924. Honors thesis, U. AZ, 1994. OCLC #37021614.

KKK Realm of AZ. Klan collection, 1924-1925. Misc letters and records of the Klan in AZ 1924-1925. OCLC #56715812.

Yuma County Chapter. Klan collection, 1921-1930. OCLC #37857361.

AR

Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! The War Against Drink in Arkansas: 1920-1950. Little rock, AR. Old State House Mus exhibit.

CA

Cocoltchos, C. Invisible government and the viable community.  The Ku Klux Klan in Orange County, California, during the 1920’s.

California Klan news. Fallbrook, CA: The Klan. Newspaper. OCLC # 14148607.

Fresno Klan No. 2. State wide fiesta and public ceremonial, Fresno County Fair Grounds, May 17th to 28th under auspices of Fresno Klan No. 2. Fresno, 1919. OCLC #50104301.

CA Knights. The Klan in action; a manuel [sic] of leadership and organization for officers of local Klan committees. 192? OCLC #19101645.

Klan records, 1922-1942. Correspondence, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera pertaining chiefly to Klan activities in the Realm of CA. Includes the Oath of allegiance and Constitution. OCLC #16666410.

Constitution of the CA Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 192? OCLC #14820409.

Do you know that the Ku Klux Klan is in San San Francisco: The Klan, 192-? OCLC #54887904.

Sacramento Coun Hist Soc. The Ku Klux Klan in Sacramento, 1922, 1981. Golden Notes, v. 7, No. 2. OCLC #49789825.

The 1920s: An active Klan raises fear. Santa Cruz Sentinel on-line edition.

Canada

Baergen, W. The Ku Klux Klan in central Alberta. Cent Alberta Hist. Soc., ISBN 0929123107 9780929123103.

Canadian Klan Action. Newspaper. New Westminster, B.C. OCLC #14758423.

Kloran. Toronto, 1925. OCLC #607050551.

Manual of the Order of Citizenship, 1927. OCLC #607050567.

Robin, M. Shades of Right. Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940.

Sher, J. White Hoods. Canada’s Klan, 1983.

CO

Carter, C. Adams and the Klan. OCLC #14152614.

Casey, L. When the Klan controlled Colorado. Rocky Mount News, 1946. (June 17-19).

Goldberg, R. Hooded Empire: the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Shows how strongly the KKK supported Prohibition in the state. And also how strongly residents supported the Klan.

Gunn, L. The Protestant “Kluxing” of Canon City, CO. Canon City Pub Lib.

Klan collection, [192-]. Misc collection relating to Klan activities in CO during the 1920’s. OCLC #18510666.

Norberg, D.  Klan in the Valley. A 1920s Phenomenon. White River J, January, 2004.

Quillen, E. Welcome to Kolorado, Klan Kountry. When the Invisible Empire ran the state, only one major city escaped. CO Springs News, May 22-28, 2003.

CT

Ku Klux Klan. Pamphlets. Collection of pamphlets, brochures, application forms, etc., 1920-1929. OCLC # 36804745.

DE

Klan records, 1926. OCLC #54354061.

Klan records, 1922. OCLC #54353149.

DC

Women of the Klan. Constitution of the WKKK, accepted and adopted June 2nd, 1923, at Washington, D.C., 1924?

FL

Newton, M. The Invisible Empire.  The Ku Klux Klan in Florida.

Romer, G. Progress Week parade: the Klan on parade, 1926. Photo. OCLC # 191825347.

GA

Akin, E. The Ku Klux Klan in Georgia: Social change and conflict, 1915-1930. Ph.D. diss, U CA, 1994.

Hux, R. The Klan in Macon, 1919-1925. GA Hist Q, 1978, 62, 155-168.

Athens Klan #5. Athens Klan #5 records, 1921-1930. OCLC #38476235

Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. Journal (April, 1927). OCLC #17819416

Klorero. Minutes. OCLC #17819440

Material relating to the Klan in Lithonia, GA. OCLC #426209637

Moseley, C. Political influence of the Klan in GA, 1915-1925. GA Hist Q, 1973, 57, 235-255.

ID

KKK Realm of ID. Western Recorder. Newspaper. Payette, ID.  OCLC #13150022

IL

Ayabe, M. The Ku Klux Klan movement in Williamson County, Illinois, 1923-1926. Ph.D., Urbana-Champaign: U. IL.

Clemens, T. Kluxing in Korn Kountry. M.S. thesis. IL State U., 2005.

Misc pubs of KKK. OCLC #17576452

Carlock (IL) Unit No. 71. Records, 1924-1925. OCLC #79463270

The IL Kourier. Newspaper,1924-? OCLC #27358141.

IL Fiery Cross. Newspaper, 1924. OCLC # 27358061.

Dawn the Herald of a New and Better Day. Newspaper. OCLC #18536928.

Champaign-Urbana chapter KKK. Financial records, 1924-1926. OCLC #53826828.

IN

kkk supported prohibitionBentley, M. The Klan in Indiana. McClure’s Mag, 1924 (May), 58.

Benjamin Dubois vs. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (IN), 1923. OCLC #183904107.

Moore, L. Citizen Klansmen. The Klan in IN, 1921-1928, 1991. Shows how strongly the KKK supported prohibition.

Cates, F. The Klan in Indiana, 1920-1925. Ph.D., IN U.

Cook, J. Visible empire: the  Klan in IN, 1921-1928. VHS video. 1998. OCLC #40824732.

KKK Realm of IN. Klan officers, IN records, 1925. OCLC #30407147.

Indianapolis Chapter. Ledger, 1924. A 929 page membership ledger. OCLC #192095831.

KKK Realm of IN. Why the Klan opposed the World. Court. c.1920. OCLC #32377806.

In the matter of the charges and specifications against Klansman David Curtis Stephenson. Involving a major offense trial before tribunal in the Klavern of Evansville. Klan # 1, Realm of IN, June 23, 1924. OCLC # 476632716.

KKK of Wayne County, IN. Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #11117698.

Whitewater Klan #60 (Richmond, IN) Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #154691467.

The IN Kourier. Newspaper. Successor to the Fiery Cross. OCLC # 11636710.

Crown Point Klan #72 (Crown Point, IN) Records, 1915?-1933. OCLC # 48126476.

Ku Klux Klan. Letters and papers, 1925. OCLC #78791392.

LaPorte, IN (Chapter). Charter, 1925. The charter for the Knights of the Klan, La Porte, IN, 30 July 1925. OCLC #34667220.

Realm of IN. The Klansmen’s oath. Indiana : Knights of the Klan, Realm of IN, 192-? OCLC #20661116.

Realm of IN, No. 2. Special instructions. OCLC #20661116.

Lutholtz, M. Grand Dragon. D.C. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan in IN. Purdue U.

Weaver, N. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in WI, IN OH and MI. Ph.D., Northwestern U.

IA

kkk supported prohibitionThe Hawkeye Independent. Newspaper, Knights and Women of the Klan, Realm of IA. OCLC #9304987

_________. Newspaper, 1924. Two issues of the Klan’s IA newspaper, the Iowa Klan Kourier. OCLC #52973123.

Neymeyer, R. In the full light of day: the Klan in 1920’s. Palimpsest, 1995, 76(2).

Pendelton, C. Charles Edmund Pendleton papers, 1895-1976. Includes material on the Klan in IA. OCLC #58392992.

Schieder, D. A Farmer and the Klan in Northwest IA.  Ann Iowa, 2002, 61(3),  286-320

KS

Jones, R. The politics of the Klan in Kansas during the 1920s. M.A. thesis, Emporia State U.

Jones, L. The Klan in Eastern KS during the 1920’s. Emporia State Res Stud, 1975 (Winter), 23(3).

Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Sunflower Klan No. 9 (Hutchinson, KS) Records. OCLC #43804557.

KY

kkk supported prohibitionKirschenbaum, R. Klan and Commonwealth: the Klan and Politics in KY, 1921-1928.

Pond Creek Klan, No. 117 (KY). Pond Creek, KY Klan membership roll, 1926-1928. OCLC #13566339.

Patriotic address by Judge E.C. McDougal, of Richmond, KY, 192-? OCLC #34339047.

Big Western KY Klan rally, Henderson, KY, Saturday, June 12, 192-? OCLC #26185350.

Henderson Kounty Klan No. 2. Broadside 30 May 1924. OCLC #60504353.

Luntz, B. Forgotten Turmoil: the Southeastern KY Klan, 2006.

LA

Harrell, K. The Ku Klux Klan in LA: 1920-1930. Ph.D. diss, LA State U.

KKK Baton Rouge No. 3 records, 1928-1939. OCLC #268677734.

ME

Klan collection, 1923-1977. OCLC #237798953.

Richard, M. “This is not a Catholic nation.” The Klan confronts Franco-Americans in ME. New Eng Q, 2009, 28(2). Shows how strongly the KKK supported prohibition in ME.

MD

Records Klan No. 51, Mt. Rainier, MD, 1924-1965. OCLC #20793865.

MA

Painter, N. Harvard U and the Klan, 1923. April 13, 1970. OCLC #228513358.

MI

Michigan

KKK collect, Owosso, MI, 1926. OCLC #42997201.

Bay City Night Hawk. Newspaper. OCLC #40852491.

Newaygo County (MI) membership cards, 1923,1926. OCLC #41321346.

KKK misce collect, 1924,1929. OCLC #41536809.

Newaygo County membership cards 1923-1926. OCLC #36420838.

Mitchell, T. White Sheets over West Michigan: the Klan in Newaygo County, MI in the 1920s. Honors thesis. U. MI, 2000. OCLC #44617252.

Weaver, N. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in WI, IN, OH and MI. Ph.D. diss, Northwestern U, 1986.

Women of the Klan. Realm of MI. Wolverine Women. Periodical.  WKKK, Realm of Michigan, 1928-. OCLC #38868025.

Midwest

Jacobs, M. Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest, 1921-8. Ph.D. diss, Marquette U., 2001.

Marszalek, J. KKK: The 1920s Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994 (March-April), 11(2).

Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Klan in Middle America, 1991.

MN

Hatle, E. and Vaillancourt, N. One flag, one school, one language. MN’s Klan in the 1920s. MN Hist, 2009-2010, 61(8).

North Star Klan No. 2. Voice of the Knights. OCLC #4671781.

The MN Fiery Cross. Newspaper, 1924-

Taylor, C. Midnight on the Knol: Klan activity on the U of MN campus, 1923-1925, 2001. OCLC #47872026.

MS

The Kloran of the White Knights, Realm of MS. OCLC #227147497.

MO

KKK. Constitution and laws of the WKKK, adopted in 1927.

The Klan Kourier. Newspaper, 1924-? OCLC #21091237.

The Patriot. OCLC #21091206.

MT

Wheatland Klan No. 29 (Harlowton, MT.) records, 1923-1928. OCLC #70966611

Sturdevant, A. The MT Ku Klux Klan During the 1920s. M.A. thesis, Wash State U, 2001.

New England

Minehan, M. and Cathcart, D. The New England Ku Klux Klan. The KKK promoted Prohibition even in New England. OCLC #55892036.

NH

Records of the KKK in NH, 1927. OCLC #105537914.

NJ

KKK Realm of NJ. Office of the Grand Dragon. OCLC #173881510.

NM

Southwest Klansman. Official regional pub for states including NM. OCLC #25382324.

Mechem, M. Gov.  , 1908-1925. Includes information on Klan activities in NM. OCLC #37842197.

NY

Behreus, D. The KKK flares up on LI. In the early 1920’s, white robes and burning crosses are in many villages. Long Island: Our Story. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com

Jackson, K. The Klan in the City 1915-1930, 1967.The KKK promoted Prohibition even in NY city!

Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1925-1928. Consists of the Plattsville, New York Chapter record. OCLC #122537049.

Klorero. Elmira, N.Y., July 1-5, 1925. OCLC #2743596.

New York Klan #260. Records, 1927-1928. OCLC #73692266.

Klorero. Mineola, Long Island, July 3-6, 1926. OCLC #43892048.

Records, 1925-1927. OCLC #86164540

Collection, 1922-1924. OCLC #155431979.

Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York.

NC

Keith, E. Congressional investigation of the Ku Klux Klan in NC, SC, GA, AL, and MS. M.A. thesis, U. ND, 1933.

KKK. Papers. 1923. OCLC #30445249

ND

Grand Forks Klan No. 1, Grand Forks. Voice of the Knights. OCLC #19317655.

OH

Davis, M. and Mercer, B. KKK in Springfield Township. Transcript of interview taped on August 17, 1976, OCLC #17691052.

Jenkins, W. Steel Valley Clan: the Klan in OH’s Mahoning Valley.

Jenkins, W. The Klan in Youngstown, OH. Moral reform in the twenties. Historian, 1978 (Nov), 76-93.

KKK records. Microfilm edition, 1923-1924.  OCLC #45912343.

The OH Kourier. Dayton: Empire, 1924- OCLC #15314212.

Litty, J. and Jenkins, W. The Klan in Salem, OH, OCLC #26145682.

McDermott, F. and Papalas, S. Niles Klan Riot of 1924.” Oral Hist Proj, 1982. OCLC #12299375.

Weaver, N. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in WI, IN, OH and MI. Ph.D. diss, Northwestern U, 1986.

OK

Clark, B. A history of the Ku Klux Klan in OK. Ph.D. diss, U. OK, 1976.

OR

The Klan. Portland: Catholic Truth Society of OR, 192-? OCLC # 36231588.

Coulter, T., et al. The Klan in OR, 1920-1923: a documentary. DVD video, 2009. Shows how the KKK supported Prohibition throughout the country. OCLC #535966757.

Hadbury, J. The Klan in Jackson County (OR). OCLC #29020186.

OR chapter No. 8 (Tillamook, OR), records, 1922-1929.  OCLC #52124365

Toy, E. The Ku Klux Klan in OR: Its Program and Purpose. M.A. thesis, U. OR, 1959.

PA

Fliss, M. The Ku Klux Klan in Luzerne County. Wilkes Coll, 1971. OCLC #11050780.

A Ku Klux Klan message to PA. Beware of aliens, 1926. OCLC # 55717288.

The Ku Klux Klan discloses its position on the Presidency: Realm of PA, 1928. OCLC #9069479.

Philadelphia County Headquarters, No. 3.To the Klansmen of Philadelphia County, 1926. OCLC # 41470011.

Kuhn, A. The Klan in Lancaster County, PA. J Lancaster County Hist Soci, 98(3).

Loucks, E. The Klan in PA: A Study in Nativism, 1936.

RI

Adjunct General’s Office. 1928. Report on alleged control of the First Light Infantry by the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC # 41654696

SC

An Introduction to the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 193-? OCLC #7630758.

Why You Should Become a Klansman. OCLC #225093065′

Photograph of Klan meeting at a house. OCLC #56772051.

Simpsonville, SC: parade. Photo. OCLC #55530541.

Southwest

Alexander, C. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest.

Southwest Klansman. Newspaper. Official regional pub for TX, AL, LA, OK, AZ, & NM. OCLC #25382324.

TN

Kent, A. The Ku Klux Klan in TN. M.A. thesis. U. TN, 1935.

Knox County Klan No. 14 (Knoxville, TN). 14 records, 1924-1925. OCLC #173863142.

__________.  Records, 1924-1927. OCLC #46612880.

McKay, E. and Dotson, P. Misc Klan records, TN, 1920-1968. Memphis State U, 1982. OCLC #10151135.

Sherrod, I. The Ku Klux movement in TN. M.A. thesis. George Peabody Coll Teach, 1935.

TX

Alexander, C. Crusade for conformity: the Klan in TX, 1920-1930. TX Gulf Coast Hist Assn. Pub series, v. 6, no. 1. OCLC #490197.

Ballinger, L. Ku Klux Klan in Fort Worth, 1997. OCLC #441284848.

Dallas County Citizen’s League. The Klan, 1922. OCLC #17977353.

Temple, TX. Notice. May 28, 1925. OCLC #54228770

Kountry Klub Klan No. 64, Realm of TX. The Lodge of Sorrow. 1925. OCLC #54228538

Resolutions upon the death of Mrs. P.H. Benton, TX: 1925. OCLC #54228615.

San Antonio Klan No. 31. Ku Klux special to letter to all Klansmen, 1923. OCLC #26864988.

UT

Gerlach, L. Blazing Crosses in Zion. The Ku Klux Klan in Utah, 1982.

VT

America is in danger! KKK lecture, Oct 3, 1926. OCLC #53448584

VA

Photo of the R.E. Lee Ku Klux Klan convention, 1931. OCLC ##52925738

Klan in Roanoke depicts Klaverns from around the state. OCLC ##52925738

Photo of the Ballston Klan No. 6, 1935.  OCLC #647833693

Province No. 2. College of William and Mary. Flag presentation program, 1926. OCLC #11492739

Asu Klan No. 16, Portsmouth, “Pay your poll tax!!!,” 1922. OCLC #123286438.

Save America!! Join United Klans, UKA, 192-? OCLC #26865041.

Lynchburg Klan No. 11. The Awakening: A patriotic musical. extravaganza. 192-? OCLC #38276863.

WA

Klan misc, ca. 1920-1925. OCLC #297210231.

Kuttel, R. Preserving public morality: the Klan of WA and their Anti-Catholic School Bill, 2000. The KKK supported Prohibition. It was also anti-Catholic. OCLC #47840663.

Mayers, G. The Ku Klan in Bellingham, 1900-1935. J Whatcom Coun Hist Soc, 2001. OCLC #49429979.

West

Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West.

WV

The National Kourier. 1925- OCLC #18796047.

Waugh, H. Instructions to the grand jury, 1923. OCLC #70913707.

WI

Hedberg Pub Lib (Janesville, WI). Hedberg Pub Lib, 1992- OCLC #74557347.

Klan 14 (Chippewa Falls, WI). Records, 1926-1931. OCLC #145790494.

Kleagle of Marathon County, WI.  KKK of Marathon County, 192? OCLC #24048884.

Klan souvenir programme, state klonvokation, Oshkosh, July 4th, 1925. OCLC #191702674.

Turcheneske, J., Jr. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern WI. M.A. thesis. WI State U., River Falls, 1971.

Weaver, N. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in WI, IN, OH and MI. Ph.D. diss, Northwestern U, 1986.

Popular Readings: KKK Supported Prohibition

National Prohibition caused enormous problems. But before that, it was popular. The KKK supported Prohibition. This fact helps explain KKK membership throughout the U.S. These readings describe the extent of its support.

Chalmers, D. Hooded Americans. The History of the Ku Klux Klan.

Horowitz, D. (Ed.) Inside the Klavern. The Secret History of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s.

Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West.

MacLean, N. Behind the Masks of Chivalry. The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan.

Marszalek, J. KKK: The 1920s Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 11(2).

Miller, R. The relationship between the Protestant Churches and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. J South Hist22, 355-368.

Moore, L. Historical interpretation of the 1920s Klan. J Soc Hist24, 341-357.

Rice, A. The Ku Klux Klan in Politics.

Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America.

Wade, W. The Fiery Cross.

Weisberger, B. When white hoods were in flower. Am Herit, 43(2),18-19.

Endnotes: KKK Supported Prohibition

1. Chancellor Brehm on Benton Mural. Bloomington: IN U press release, March 25, 2002.

2. Lantzwe, J. Dark Beverages of Hell. Part III. Rural Hist Proj. Shows how the KKK supported Prohibition.

3. Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara.

4. McCaymer, J. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Assumption Coll, Oct 2009.

5. Kleinegger, C. Women in the Ku Klux Klan. Albany: New York State Mus.

6. Norberg, D. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley. White River J, Jan, 2004.

7. Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross, p. 111.

8. Politics and World Affairs, Aug  30, 2004. Italics are in original.

9. Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949.

10. The 1920s: An active Ku Klux Klan raises fear.

11. Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! Little Rock: Old State House Mus exhibit.

12. FBI. The Ku Klux Klan. Wash: FBI, July, 1957, p. 21.

13. Moore, L.J. Citizen Klansmen. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928.

14. Behreus, D. The KKK flares up on LI. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com. KKK supported prohibition on Long Island. That helps explain its strength there.

15. Smith, R.  The United States from the Late 19th Century through the Great Depression. Prohibition (Hist 124). U CA at Berk.

16. Zerzan, J. Rank-and-file radicalism within the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Anarchy, vol. 37.

17. Schaal, P. Sanford as I Knew It, 1912-1935. Shows how the KKK supported Prohibition and brutally defended it.

18. O’Neil, T. Prohibition. Post-Dis, Jan 13, 2004.

19. Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, 1920s.

20. Sinclair, A. Prohibition, p. 26.

21. Moore, ibid.

22. “Ku Klux Klan.”

Note
    • The evidence is clear. The KKK supported prohibition. And it did so very strongly.