One of the major supporters of National Prohibition in the U.S. (1920-1933) was the anti-alcohol Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Indeed, the KKK supported Prohibition vigorously. It sometimes defended it violently.
I. The KKK Supported Prohibition
The KKK’s defense of Prohibition explains much of its popularity during the 1920s. In fact, people across the country supported the Klan.
I. The KKK Supported ProhibitionVery Strongly
- Prohibitionists ‘revived [the KKK] in Atlanta in 1915 to defend Prohibition,’ which existed in Georgia at that time.*1
- ‘Prohibition became one of the Klan’s leading issues’2 and the Klan strongly supported both Prohibition and its strict enforcement.3
- The KKK ‘adopted prohibition as a central rallying cry.’4
- ‘Enforcing Prohibition was a cornerstone of the KKK’s ‘reform’ agenda.’5
- ‘Enforcement of Prohibition, in fact, was a central, and perhaps the strongest, goal of the Ku Klux Klan.’6
- ‘Demon Rum… was the most obsessive issue on the Klan mind next to the pope.’7
- The KKK’s ‘support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation.’8 (Emphasis in original.)
- Because it so strongly ‘opposed the sale of alcohol,’9 the new KKK ‘attacked bootlegging.’10
‘The Klan’s resurgence in the 1920s partially stemmed from their role as the extreme militant wing of the temperance movement. In Arkansas, as elsewhere, the Ku Klux Klan marked bootleggers as one of the groups it wanted to purge. In 1922, 200 Klansmen torched saloons that had sprung up in Union County. The national Klan office ended up in Dallas, Texas. But Little Rock was the home of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan. The first head of this female auxiliary was a former president of the Arkansas WCTU.’11
- There was much interaction and overlap in membership between the KKK and other prohibition supporters. For example, a Klan leader, Edward Young Clarke, raised funds for both the KKK and the Anti-Saloon League.12
- Its enforcement of prohibition was one of the factors ‘most responsible for the Klan’s great popularity.’13
- The KKK challenged bootleggers by organizing armed patrols to intercept shipments of alcohol.14
- ‘The Ku Klux Klan associated itself with the campaign against alcohol.’ One of the major KKK activities in the 1920s was rooting out bootleggers and breaking up speakeasies.15
- ‘widespread were Klan efforts to put bootleggers out of business.’16
- The KKK tarred, feathered and ran bootleggers out of town.17
- Williamson County in Illinois was the scene of great violence. “[B]attles between the operators of wide-open taverns and the ‘dry’ Ku Klux Klan killed 14 people in 1924-25.”18
- Although Prohibition became increasingly unpopular with the passage of time, the KKK strongly and actively opposed its repeal.19In the 1920s, over 25 percent of native-born men in Indiana were official members of the KKK. The Klan’s membership was many times larger than any of the popular veterans’ organizations. It was even larger than the Methodist church, the state’s biggest Protestant denomination. And women’s auxiliaries added even more members.21
Prohibitionists in General
Prohibitionists in general often advocated strong measures against those who did not comply with Prohibition. One suggested that the government distribute poisoned alcohol beverages through bootleggers (sellers of illegal alcohol). The person acknowledged that several hundred thousand Americans would die as a result. But they thought the cost well worth the enforcement of Prohibition. Others suggested that those who drank should be:
- Hung by the tongue beneath an airplane and flown over the country.
- Exiled to concentration camps in the Aleutian Islands
- Excluded from any and all churches.
- Forbidden to marry.
- Placed in bottle-shaped cages in public squares.
- Forced to swallow two ounces of caster oil.
- Executed, as well as their progeny to the fourth generation.20
The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the U.S. That was one of its appeals from coast to coast.
A number of neo-temperance groups carry forward the anti-alcohol sentiment of the KKK (although not its methods).
* Needles to say, the new KKK was also anti-African American, anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant.
II. Resources: KKK Supported Prohibition
By Geographic Location
PLEASE NOTE: General popular readings on the KKK of the 1920s follow this section.
The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the United States It even supported prohibition at the provincial level in Canada. Most of these resources suggest how pervasive the Klan became during Prohibition. In some areas it became an “invisible government.”
The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is a non-profit cooperative library system. It helps libraries share materials. Therefore, many items display an OCLC number. This will help a librarian find the material for you.
Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa: U. Alabama Press, 1999.
Abbey, S.W. The Klan in Arizona, 1921-1925. Arizona State U, May, 1971. OCLC #26989490.
Baker, T. The Ku Klux Klan in Phoenix, 1921-1924. Honors thesis, U. Arizona, 1994. OCLC #37021614.
Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Arizona. Klan Collection, 1924-1925. Archival material. Miscellaneous correspondence and records of the Klan in Arizona 1924-1925. OCLC #56715812.
_________. Yuma County Chapter. Klan Collection, 1921-1930. Archival material. OCLC #37857361.
Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! The War Against Drink in Arkansas: 1920-1950. Little rock, AR. Old State House Museum exhibit.
oldstatehouse.com/ exhibits/archive/john-barleycorn/ 1920-1950.asp
Cocoltchos, C. Invisible government and the viable community. The Ku Klux Klan in Orange County, California, during the 1920’s. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1979.
Ku Klux Klan. California Klan news. Fallbrook, CA: The Klan. Newspaper. OCLC # 14148607.http://catalog.library.ucla.edu/vwebv/searchBasic
__________. Fresno Klan No. 2. State wide fiesta and public ceremonial, Fresno County Fair Grounds, May 17th to 28th under auspices of Fresno Klan No. 2. Fresno, CA: The Klan, 1919. OCLC #50104301.
__________. California Knights. The Klan in action; a manuel [sic] of leadership and organization for officers of local Klan committees. 192? OCLC #19101645.
__________. Klan records, 1922-1942. Correspondence, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera pertaining chiefly to Klan activities in the Realm of California. Includes the Oath of allegiance and Constitution. OCLC #16666410.
__________. Constitution of the California Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 192? OCLC #14820409.
__________. Do you know that the Ku Klux Klan is in San San Francisco: The Klan, 192-? OCLC #54887904.
Sacramento County Historical Society. The Ku Klux Klan in Sacramento, 1922. Sacramento: The Society, 1981. Golden Notes, v. 7, No. 2. OCLC #49789825.
The 1920s: An active Klan raises fear. Santa Cruz Sentinel on-line edition.
Baergen, W.P. The Ku Klux Klan in central Alberta. Red Deer, Alta: Central Alberta Hist. Soc., 2000. ISBN 0929123107 9780929123103.
Ku Klux Klan. Canadian Klan Action. Newspaper. New Westminster, B.C. OCLC #14758423.
__________. Kloran. Toronto: The Klan, 1925. OCLC #607050551.
__________. Manual of the Order of Citizenship. Toronto: The Klan, 1927. OCLC #607050567.
Robin, M. Shades of Right. Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940. Toronto: U Toronto Press, 1992.
Sher, J. White Hoods. Canada’s Klan. Vancouver: New Star, 1983.
Casey, L. When the Klan controlled Colorado. Rocky Mountain News, 1946. (June 17-19).
Goldberg, R.A. Hooded Empire: the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1981. Shows how strongly the KKK supported Prohibition in the state. And also how strongly residents supported thr Klan.
Gunn, L. The Protestant “Kluxing” of Canon City, Colorado. Canon City, CO: Canon City Public Library.
Klan collection, [192-]. Miscellaneous collection relating to Klan activities in Colorado during the 1920’s. OCLC #18510666.
Norberg, D. Klan in the Valley: A 1920s Phenomenon. White River Journal, January, 2004.
Quillen, E. Welcome to Kolorado, Klan Kountry. When the Invisible Empire ran the state, only one major city escaped. Colorado Springs News, May 22-28, 2003.
Ku Klux Klan. Pamphlets. Collection of pamphlets, brochures, application forms, etc., 1920-1929. OCLC # 36804745.
Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1926. OCLC #54354061.
_________. Records, 1922. OCLC #54353149.
District of Columbia
Women of the Klan. Constitution of the WKKK, accepted and adopted June 2nd, 1923, at Washington, D.C. Little Rock, AR: Parke-Harper, 1924? OCLC #123247504.
Newton, M. The Invisible Empire. The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. Gainesville: U. Florida Press, 2001.
Romer, G.W. Progress Week parade: the Klan on parade, 1926. Photograph. OCLC # 191825347.
Hux, R.K. The Klan in Macon, 1919-1925. Georgia Hist Q, 1978, 62, 155-168.
Ku Klux Klan. Athens Klan #5. Athens Klan #5 records, 1921-1930. OCLC #38476235
__________. Georgia. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. Atlanta, GA. Journal (April, 1927) OCLC #17819416
__________. Georgia. Klorero. Minutes. Atlanta, GA. OCLC #17819440
__________. Archival material relating to the Klan in Lithonia, Georgia. OCLC #426209637
Moseley, C.C. Political influence of the Klan in Georgia, 1915-1925. Georgia Hist Q, 1973, 57, 235-255.
Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Idaho. Western Recorder. Newspaper. Payette, ID. OCLC #13150022
Ayabe, M. The Ku Klux Klan movement in Williamson County, Illinois, 1923-1926. Ph.D., Urbana-Champaign: U. Illinois, 2005.
Clemens, T.L. Kluxing in Korn Kountry. M.S. thesis. Illinois State U., 2005.
Ku Klux Klan. Miscellaneous publications. OCLC #17576452
__________. Carlock Unit No. 71. (Carlock, IL) records, 1924-1925. OCLC #79463270
__________. The Illinois Kourier. Newspaper. Chicago: Empire Pub. Co.,1924- OCLC #27358141.
__________. Illinois Fiery Cross. Newspaper. Chicago: Empire Pub. Co, 1924. OCLC # 27358061.
__________. Illinois. Dawn the Herald of a New and Better Day. Newspaper. Chicago: Dawn Pub. Co. OCLC #18536928.
__________. Champaign-Urbana Chapter. Financial records of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, 1924-1926. OCLC #53826828.
Bubois, Benjamin vs Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In the United States court for the district of Indiana, in Equity no. … Benjamin Dubois vs. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 1923. OCLC #183904107.
Moore, L. Citizen Klansmen: The Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina Press, 1991. Shows how strongly the KKK supported prohibition.
Cates, F. The Klan in Indiana, 1920-1925. Ph.D., Indiana University, 1971.
Cook, J.R. Visible empire: the Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. VHS video. 1998. OCLC #40824732.
Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana. Klan officers, Indiana records, 1925. OCLC #30407147.
__________. Indianapolis Chapter. Ledger, 1924. A 929 page membership ledger. OCLC #192095831.
__________. Realm of Indiana. Why the Klan opposed the World. Court. c.1920. OCLC #32377806.
__________. In the matter of the charges and specifications against Klansman David Curtis Stephenson. Involving a major offense trial before tribunal in the Klavern of Evansville. Klan # 1, Realm of Indiana, June 23, 1924. OCLC # 476632716.
__________. Wayne County, IN. Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #11117698.
__________. Whitewater Klan #60 (Richmond, IN) Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #154691467.
__________. The Indiana Kourier. Washington, DC: Empire Pub. Co. Newspaper. Successor to the Fiery Cross. OCLC # 11636710.
__________. Crown Point Klan #72 (Crown Point, IN) Records, 1915?-1933. OCLC # 48126476.
__________. Letters and papers, 1925. OCLC #78791392.
__________. LaPorte, IN (Chapter). Charter, 1925. The charter for the Knights of the Klan, La Porte, Indiana, 30 July 1925. OCLC #34667220.
__________. Realm of Indiana. The Klansmen’s oath. Indiana : Knights of the Klan, Realm of Indiana, 192-? OCLC #20661116.
__________. Realm of Indiana, No. 2. Special instructions. OCLC #20661116.
Lutholtz, M. Grand Dragon. D.C. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. W. Lafayette, IN: Purdue U., 1999.
Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D., Northwestern U., 1986.
__________. Newspapers, 1924. Two issues of the Klan’s Iowa newspaper, the Iowa Klan Kourier. OCLC #52973123.
Neymeyer, R.J. In the full light of day: the Klan in 1920’s. Palimpsest, 1995, 76(2).
Pendelton, C.E. Charles Edmund Pendleton papers, 1895-1976. Archival material that Includes material on the Klan in Iowa. OCLC #58392992.
Schieder, D. A Farmer and the Klan in Northwest Iowa. Ann Iowa, 2002, 61(3), 286-320.
Jones, R.E. The politics of the Klan in Kansas during the 1920s. M.A. Emporia State University, 2007.
Jones, L.L. The Klan in Eastern Kansas during the 1920’s. Emporia State Res Stud, 1975 (Winter), 23(3).
Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Sunflower Klan No. 9 (Hutchinson, KS) Records. OCLC #43804557.
Kirschenbaum, R. Klan and Commonwealth: the Klan and Politics in Kentucky, 1921-1928. U. Kentucky, 2005.
Ku Klux Klan. Pond Creek Klan, No. 117 (KY). Pond Creek, Kentucky Klan membership roll, 1926-1928. OCLC #13566339.
__________. Patriotic address by Judge E.C. McDougal, of Richmond, Ky, 192-? OCLC #34339047.
__________. Big Western Kentucky Klan rally, Henderson, Ky., Saturday, June 12, 192-? OCLC #26185350.
__________. Henderson Kounty Klan No. 2. Broadside 30 May 1924. OCLC #60504353.
Luntz, B.F. Forgotten Turmoil: the Southeastern Kentucky Klan. Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2006.
Harrell, K.E. The Ku Klux Klan in Louisiana: 1920-1930. Ph.D., Louisiana State U.,
Ku Klux Klan. Baton Rouge No. 3 records, 1928-1939. OCLC #268677734.
Ku Klux Klan. Klan collection, 1923-1977. OCLC #237798953.
Richard, M.P. “This is not a Catholic nation.” The Klan confronts Franco-Americans in Maine. New Eng Q, 2009, 28(2). Shows how strongly the KKK supported prohibition in Maine.
Ku Klux Klan. Records Klan No. 51, Mt. Rainier, Maryland, 1924-1965. OCLC #20793865.
Painter, N. Harvard University and the Klan, 1923. April 13, 1970. OCLC #228513358.
Ku Klux Klan. (Owosso, MI). Collection, 1926.. OCLC #42997201.
__________. Bay City Night Hawk. Newspaper. Bay City, MI. OCLC #40852491.
__________. Newaygo County, MI) Membership cards, 1923,1926. OCLC #41321346.
__________. Miscellaneous Collection, 1924,1929. OCLC #41536809.
__________. Newaygo County membership cards 1923-1926. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan U, 1993. OCLC #36420838.
Mitchell, T.R. White Sheets over West Michigan: the Klan in Newaygo County, Michigan in the 1920s. Honors thesis. U. Michigan, 2000. OCLC #44617252.
Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern, Ph.D., 1986.
Women of the Klan. Realm of Michigan. Wolverine Women. Periodical. Grand Rapids, MI: WKKK, Realm of Michigan, 1928-. OCLC #38868025.
Jacobs, M.D. Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest, 1921-8. Ph.D. Marquette U., 2001.
Marszalek, J.F. KKK: The 1920s Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994 (March-April), 11(2).
Tucker, R.K. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.
Hatle, E. and Vaillancourt, N. One flag, one school, one language. Minnesota’s Klan in the 1920s. Minn Hist, 2009-2010, 61(8).
Ku Klux Klan. North Star Klan No. 2. Voice of the Knights. Newspaper. Minneapolis OCLC #4671781.
__________. The Minnesota Fiery Cross. Newspaper. St. Paul, MN: Empire, 1924-
Taylor, C. Midnight on the Knol: Klan activity on the University of Minnesota campus, 1923-1925. 2001. OCLC #47872026.
Ku Klux Klan. The Kloran of the White Knights, realm of Mississippi. OCLC #227147497.
__________. The Klan Kourier. Newspaper. St. Louis, MO: Gail S. Carter, 1924- OCLC #21091237.
__________. The Patriot. Newspaper. St. Louis: Crane. OCLC #21091206.
Ku Klux Klan. Wheatland Klan No. 29 (Harlowton, Mont.) records, 1923-1928. OCLC #70966611
Sturdevant, A.M. The Montana Ku Klux Klan During the 1920s. M.A. Washington State U, 2001.
Minehan, M. and Cathcart, D. The New England Ku Klux Klan. Norton, MA: Wheaton Coll, 2004. OCLC #55892036.
Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1927. OCLC #105537914.
Ku Klux Klan. Realm of New Jersey. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. OCLC #173881510.
Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Dallas, TX. Official regional publication for states including New Mexico. OCLC #25382324.
Mechem, M.C. Gov. Mechepapers, 1908-1925. Includes information on Klan activities in New Mexico. OCLC #37842197.
Jackson, K.T. The Klan in the City 1915-1930. NY: Oxford U. Press, 1967.
Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1925-1928. Archival material consisting of the Prattsville, New York Chapter record. OCLC #122537049.
__________. Klorero. Elmira, N.Y., July 1-2-3-4-5, 1925. Ku Klux Klan, 1925. OCLC #2743596.
__________. New york Klan #260. Records, 1927-1928. Archival material OCLC #73692266.
__________. Klorero. Mineola, Long Island, July 3-4-5-6, 1926. OCLC #43892048.
__________. Records, 1925-1927. OCLC #86164540
__________. Collection, 1922-1924. OCLC #155431979.
Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York U. Press, 1995.
Keith, E.C. Congressional investigation of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. M.A. U. North Dakota, 1933.
Ku Klux Klan. Papers. 1923. OCLC #30445249
Ku Klux Klan. Grand Forks Klan No. 1, Grand Forks. Voice of the Knights. Newspaper. OCLC #19317655.
Jenkins, W.D. Steel Valley Clan: the Klan in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley. Kent: Ohio State U. Press, 1990.
Jenkins, W.D. The Klan in Youngstown, Ohio. Moral reform in the twenties. Historian, 1978 (November), 76-93.
Ku Klux Klan. Records. Microfilm edition, 1923-1924. OCLC #45912343.
__________. The Ohio Kourier. Newspaper. Dayton: Empire, 1924- OCLC #15314212.
Litty, J.C. and Jenkins, W. The Klan in Salem, Ohio. Youngstown State U., OCLC #26145682.
McDermott, F.E. and Papalas, S. “Niles Klan Riot of 1924.” Oral Hist Proj, 1982. OCLC #12299375.
Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D., Northwestern U, 1986.
Clark, B. A history of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma. Ph.D. U. Oklahoma, 1976.
Catholic Truth Society of Oregon. The Klan. Portland: Catholic Truth Society of Oregon, 192-? OCLC # 36231588.
Coulter, T., et al. The Klan in Oregon, 1920-1923: a Documentary. DVD video. Portland, OR: : Frame by Frame Prod, 2009. OCLC #535966757.
Hadbury, J. The Klan in Jackson County (Oregon). OCLC #29020186.
Ku Klux Klan. Oregon Chapter No. 8 (Tillamook, OR), records, 1922-1929. OCLC #52124365
Toy, E.V. The Ku Klux Klan in Oregon: Its Program and Purpose. M.A. U. Oregon, 1959.
__________. A Ku Klux Klan message to Pennsylvanians. Beware of aliens. 1926. OCLC # 55717288.
__________. The Ku Klux Klan discloses its position on the Presidency: Realm of Pennsylvania. The Klan, 1928. OCLC #9069479.
__________. Philadelphia County Headquarters, No. 3.To the Klansmen of Philadelphia County. Philadelphia, PA: The Office, 1926. OCLC # 41470011.
Kuhn, A. The Klan in Lancaster County, PA. J Lancaster County Hist Soci, 98(3).
Loucks, E.H. The Klan in Pennsylvania: A Study in Nativism. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press, 1936.
Rhode Island. Adjunct General’s Office. 1928. Report on alleged control of the First Light Infantry by the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC # 41654696
Ku Klux Klan. An Introduction to the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
Spartanburg, SC: 193-? OCLC #7630758.
__________. Why You Should Become a Klansman. Spartanburg, SC. OCLC #225093065′
__________. Photograph of Klan meeting at a house. OCLC #56772051.
__________. Simpsonville, SC: parade., Photograph, n.d.. OCLC #55530541.
Alexander, C.C. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest. Lexington: U. Kentucky Press. 1965.
Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Newspaper. Official regional publication for Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana-Oklahoma-Arizona-New Mexico. Dallas, TX. OCLC #25382324.
Ku Klux Klan. Knox County Klan No. 14 (Knoxville, TN). 14 records, 1924-1925. OCLC #173863142.
__________. Records, 1924-1927. OCLC #46612880.
McKay, E. and Dotson, P. Miscellaneous Klan records, Tennessee, 1920-1968. Memphis: Memphis State U, 1982. OCLC #10151135.
Sherrod, I.L. The Ku Klux movement in Tennessee. M.A. thesis. George Peabody Coll Teach, 1935.
Ballinger, L. Ku Klux Klan in Fort Worth. Fort Worth: The author, 1997. OCLC #441284848.
Dallas County Citizen’s League. The Klan. Denver: Am Pub Soc, 1922. OCLC #17977353.
Ku Klux Klan. Temple, Texas. Notice. May 28, 1925. OCLC #54228770
__________. Kountry Klub Klan No. 64, Realm of Texas. The Lodge of Sorrow. 1925. OCLC #54228538
__________. Resolutions upon the death of Mrs. P.H. Benton, TX: 1925. OCLC #54228615.
__________. San Antonio Klan No. 31. Ku Klux special to letter to all Klansmen, 1923. OCLC #26864988.
Gerlach, L. Blazing Crosses in Zion. The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan: Utah State U. Press, 1982.
Ku Klux Klan. America is in danger! Lecture, October 3, 1926. OCLC #53448584
__________. Klan in Roanoke depicts Klaverns from around the state. OCLC ##52925738
__________. Photo of the Ballston Klan No. 6, 1935. OCLC #647833693
__________. Province No. 2. College of William and Mary. Flag presentation program, 1926. OCLC #11492739
__________. Asu Klan No. 16, Portsmouth, “Pay your poll tax!!!,” 1922. OCLC #123286438.
__________. Save America!! Join United Klans, UKA, 192-? OCLC #26865041.
__________. Lynchburg Klan No. 11. The Awakening: A patriotic musical. extravaganza. 192-? OCLC #38276863.
Ku Klux Klan. Klan miscellany, ca. 1920-1925. OCLC #297210231.
Kuttel, R. Preserving public morality: the Klan of Washington and their Anti-Catholic School Bill. Bellingham, WA: Ryan Kuttel, 2000. OCLC #47840663.
Mayers, G.S. The Ku Klan in Bellingham, 1900-1935. J Whatcom Coun Histl Soc, 2001. OCLC #49429979.
Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1992.
Ku Klux Klan. The National Kourier. Newspaper, 1925- OCLC #18796047.
Waugh, H.R. Instructions to the grand jury, 1923. OCLC #70913707.
Ku Klux Klan. Klan 14 (Chippewa Falls, WI). Records, 1926-1931. OCLC #145790494.
__________. Kleagle of Marathon County, Wisconsin. Marathon, WI: KKK of Marathon County, 192? OCLC #24048884.
__________. Klan souvenir programme, state klonvokation, Oshkosh, July 4th, 1925. OCLC #191702674.
Turcheneske, J.A., Jr. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern Wisconsin. M.A. thesis, River Falls, WI: Wisconsin State U.-River Falls, 1971.
Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D. diss, Northwestern U, 1986.
Popular Readings on the KKK of the 1920s
National Prohibition caused enormous problems. However, before that, it was popular. The KKK supported Prohibition. This fact helps explain KKK membership throughout the U.S. These readings describe the extent of its support.
Chalmers, D. Hooded Americans. The History of the Ku Klux Klan. Durham, NC: Duke U. Press, 1991.
Horowitz, D. (Ed.) Inside the Klavern. The Secret History of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Carbondale: Southern Ill U. Press, 1999.
Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West. Urbana: University of Ill Press, 1992.
MacLean, N. Behind the Masks of Chivalry. The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. NY: Oxford U. Press, 1994.
Marszalek, J. KKK: The 1920s Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994, 11(2).
Miller, R. A Note on the relationship between the Protestant Churches and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. J South Hist, 1956, 22, 355-368.
Moore, L. Historical interpretation of the 1920s Klan. J Soc Hist, 1990, 24, 341-357.
Rice, A. The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics. Washington: Pub Affairs, 1962.
Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.
Wade, W. The Fiery Cross. The Klan in America. NY: Oxford U. Press, 2007.
Weisberger, B.A. When white hoods were in flower. Am Herit, 1992, 43(2), 18-19.
1. Chancellor Brehm on Benton Mural. Bloomington: Indiana U press release, March 25, 2002.
2. Lantzwe, J. Dark Beverages of Hell. Part III. Rural History Project.
3. Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara. The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York U. Press, 1995.
4. McCaymer, J. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Assumption Coll, Oct 2009.
5. Kleinegger, C. Women in the Ku Klux Klan. Albany: New York State Museum.
6. Norberg, D. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley. White River J, Jan, 2004.
7. Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991, p. 111.
8. Politics and World Affairs, Aug 30, 2004. Italics are in original.
9. Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa: U. Alabama Press, 1999.
11. Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! Little Rock: Old State House Museum exhibit.
12. FBI. The Ku Klux Klan. Washington: FBI, July, 1957, p. 21.
13. Moore, L.J. Citizen Klansmen. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: U. North Carolina Press, 1991.
14. Behreus, D. The KKK flares up on LI. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com KKK supported prohibition on Long Island. That helps explain its strength there.
15. Smith, R. The United States from the Late 19th Century through the Great Depression: Prohibition (History 124). U Cal at Berkeley.
16. Zerzan, J. Rank-and-file radicalism within the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Anarchy, 1993, vol. 37.
17. Schaal, P. Sanford as I Knew It, 1912-1935. Orlando, FL: P. Schaal, 1970. Shows how the KKK supported Prohibition and brutally defended it.
18. O’Neil, T. Prohibition. Post-Dispatch, Jan 13, 2004.
20. Sinclair, A. Prohibition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962, p. 26.
21. Moore, ibid.
22. ‘Ku Klux Klan.’
The evidence is clear that the KKK supported prohibition almost fanatically.