KKK (Ku Klux Klan), Alcohol, & Prohibition: The KKK Supported Prohibition and Defended It

The KKK  Supported Prohibition Very Strongly

One of the major supporters of Prohibition in the U.S. (1920-1933) was the anti-alcohol Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Indeed, the KKK supported Prohibition vigorously. It sometimes defended it violently.

  • Prohibitionists ‘revived [the KKK] in Atlanta in 1915 to defend Prohibition,’ which existed in Georgia at that time.*1
  • ‘Prohibition became one of the Klan’s leading issues’2 and the Klan strongly supported both Prohibition and its strict enforcement.3
  • The KKK ‘adopted prohibition as a central rallying cry.’4
  • ‘Enforcing Prohibition was a cornerstone of the KKK’s ‘reform’ agenda.’5
  • ‘Enforcement of Prohibition, in fact, was a central, and perhaps the strongest, goal of the Ku Klux Klan.’6
  • ‘Demon Rum… was the most obsessive issue on the Klan mind next to the pope.’7
  • The KKK’s ‘support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation.’8 (Emphasis in original.)
  • Because it so strongly ‘opposed the sale of alcohol,’9 the new KKK ‘attacked bootlegging.’10
           Resurgence
KKK supported prohibition

KKK: Defender of Prohibition

  • ‘The Klan’s resurgence in the 1920s partially stemmed from their role as the extreme militant wing of the temperance movement. In Arkansas, as elsewhere, the Ku Klux Klan marked bootleggers as one of the groups it wanted to purge. In 1922, 200 Klansmen torched saloons that had sprung up in Union County. The national Klan office ended up in Dallas, Texas. But Little Rock was the home of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan. The first head of this female auxiliary was a former president of the Arkansas WCTU.’11
            Overlapping Membership
  • There was much interaction and overlap in membership between the KKK and other prohibition supporters. For example, a Klan leader, Edward Young Clarke, raised funds for both the KKK and the Anti-Saloon League.12
  • Its enforcement of prohibition was one of the factors ‘most responsible for the Klan’s great popularity.’13
  • The KKK challenged bootleggers by organizing armed patrols to intercept shipments of alcohol.14
  • ‘The Ku Klux Klan associated itself with the campaign against alcohol.’ One of the major KKK activities in the 1920s was rooting out bootleggers and breaking up speakeasies.15
  • ‘widespread were Klan efforts to put bootleggers out of business.’16
            Enforced Prohibition
  • The KKK tarred, feathered and ran bootleggers out of town.17
  • Williamson County in Illinois was the scene of great violence. “[B]attles between the operators of wide-open taverns and the ‘dry’ Ku Klux Klan killed 14 people in 1924-25.”18
  • Although Prohibition became increasingly unpopular with the passage of time, the KKK strongly and actively opposed its repeal.19
    In the 1920s, over 25 percent of native-born men in Indiana were official members of the KKK. The Klan’s membership was many times larger than any of the popular veterans’ organizations. It was even larger than the Methodist church, the state’s biggest Protestant denomination. And women’s auxiliaries added even more members.21

Prohibitionists in General

Prohibitionists in general often advocated strong measures against those who did not comply with Prohibition. One suggested that the government distribute poisoned alcohol beverages through bootleggers (sellers of illegal alcohol). The person  acknowledged that several hundred thousand Americans would die as a result. But they thought the cost well worth the enforcement of Prohibition. Others suggested that those who drank should be:

  • Hung by the tongue beneath an airplane and flown over the country.
  • Exiled to concentration camps in the Aleutian Islands
  • Excluded from any and all churches.
  • Forbidden to marry.
  • Tortured.
  • Branded.
  • Whipped.
  • Sterilized.
  • Tattooed.
  • Placed in bottle-shaped cages in public squares.
  • Forced to swallow two ounces of caster oil.
  • Executed, as well as their progeny to the fourth generation.20
KKK supported prohibition

Hiram Wesley Evans, KKK Leader

The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the U.S. That was one of its appeals from coast to coast.

A number of neo-temperance groups carry forward the anti-alcohol sentiment of the KKK (although not its methods).

* Needles to say, the new KKK was also anti-African American, anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant.

Readings on the KKK by Geographic Location

PLEASE NOTE: General popular readings on the KKK of the 1920s follow this section.

The KKK supported Prohibition throughout the United States It even supported prohibition at the provincial level in Canada. Most of these resources suggest how pervasive the Klan became during Prohibition. In some areas it became an “invisible government.”

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is a non-profit cooperative library system. It helps libraries share materials. Therefore, many items display an OCLC number.

Alabama

Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa: U. Alabama Press, 1999.

Arizona

Abbey, S.W. The  Klan in Arizona, 1921-1925. Arizona State U, May, 1971. OCLC #26989490.

Baker, T. The Ku Klux Klan in Phoenix, 1921-1924. Honors thesis, U. Arizona, 1994. OCLC #37021614.

Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Arizona. Klan Collection, 1924-1925. Archival material. Miscellaneous correspondence and records of the Klan in Arizona 1924-1925. OCLC #56715812.

_________. Yuma County Chapter. Klan Collection, 1921-1930. Archival material. OCLC #37857361.

Arkansas

Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! The War Against Drink in Arkansas: 1920-1950. Little rock, AR. Old State House Museum exhibit.
oldstatehouse.com/ exhibits/archive/john-barleycorn/ 1920-1950.asp

California

KKK supported prohibitionCocoltchos, C. Invisible government and the viable community.  The Ku Klux Klan in Orange County, California, during the 1920’s. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1979.

Ku Klux Klan. California Klan news. Fallbrook, CA: The Klan. Newspaper. OCLC # 14148607.http://catalog.library.ucla.edu/vwebv/searchBasic

__________. Fresno Klan No. 2. State wide fiesta and public ceremonial, Fresno County Fair Grounds, May 17th to 28th under auspices of Fresno Klan No. 2. Fresno, CA: The Klan, 1919. OCLC #50104301.

__________. California Knights. The Klan in action; a manuel [sic] of leadership and organization for officers of local Klan committees. 192? OCLC #19101645.

__________. Klan records, 1922-1942. Correspondence, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera pertaining chiefly to Klan activities in the Realm of California. Includes the Oath of allegiance and Constitution. OCLC #16666410.

__________. Constitution of the California Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 192? OCLC #14820409.

__________. Do you know that the Ku Klux Klan is in San San Francisco: The Klan, 192-? OCLC #54887904.

Sacramento County Historical Society. The Ku Klux Klan in Sacramento, 1922. Sacramento: Sacramento County Historical Society, 1981. Golden Notes, v. 7, No. 2. OCLC #49789825.

The 1920s: An active Klan raises fear. Santa Cruz Sentinel on-line edition.

Canada

Baergen, W.P. The Ku Klux Klan in central Alberta. Red Deer, Alta: Central Alberta Hist. Soc., 2000. ISBN 0929123107 9780929123103.

Ku Klux Klan. Canadian Klan Action. Newspaper. New Westminster, B.C. OCLC #14758423.

__________. Kloran. Toronto: The Klan, 1925. OCLC #607050551.

__________. Manual of the Order of Citizenship. Toronto: The Klan, 1927. OCLC #607050567.

Robin, M. Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940. Toronto: U Toronto Press, 1992.

Sher, J. White Hoods. Canada’s Klan. Vancouver: New Star, 1983.

Colorado

kkk supported prohibitionCarter, C.J. Adams and the Klan. Alamosa, CO: Adams State Coll, 1980. OCLC #14152614.

Casey, L. When the Klan controlled Colorado. Rocky Mountain News, 1946. (June 17-19).

Goldberg, R.A. Hooded Empire: the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1981. Shows how strongly the KKK supported Prohibition in the state.

Gunn, L. The Protestant “Kluxing” of Canon City, Colorado. Canon City, CO: Canon City Public Library.

Klan collection, [192-]. Miscellaneous collection relating to Klan activities in Colorado during the 1920’s. OCLC #18510666.

Norberg, D.  Klan in the Valley: A 1920s Phenomenon. White River Journal, January, 2004.

Quillen, E. Welcome to Kolorado, Klan Kountry. When the Invisible Empire ran the state, only one major city escaped. Colorado Springs News, May 22-28, 2003.

Connecticut

Ku Klux Klan. Pamphlets. Collection of pamphlets, brochures, application forms, etc., 1920-1929. OCLC # 36804745.

Delaware

Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1926. OCLC #54354061.

_________. Records, 1922. OCLC #54353149.

District of Columbia

Women of the Klan. Constitution of the WKKK, accepted and adopted June 2nd, 1923, at Washington, D.C. Little Rock, AR: Parke-Harper, 1924? OCLC #123247504.

Florida

Newton, M. The Invisible Empire.  The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. Gainesville: U. Florida Press, 2001.

Romer, G.W. Progress Week parade: the Klan on parade, 1926. Photograph. OCLC # 191825347.

Georgia

kkk supported prohibitionAkin, E.P. The Ku Klux Klan in Georgia: Social change and conflict, 1915-1930. Ph.D. diss, U California, 1994.

Hux, R.K. The Klan in Macon, 1919-1925. Georgia Hist Q, 1978, 62, 155-168.

Ku Klux Klan. Athens Klan #5. Athens Klan #5 records, 1921-1930. OCLC #38476235

__________. Georgia. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. Atlanta, GA. Journal (April, 1927) OCLC #17819416

__________. Georgia. Klorero. Minutes. Atlanta, GA. OCLC #17819440

__________. Archival material relating to the Klan in Lithonia, Georgia. OCLC #426209637

Moseley, C.C. Political influence of the Klan in Georgia, 1915-1925. Georgia Hist Q, 1973, 57, 235-255.

Idaho

Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Idaho. Western Recorder. Newspaper. Payette, ID.  OCLC #13150022

Illinois

kkk supported prohibitionAyabe, M. The Ku Klux Klan movement in Williamson County, Illinois, 1923-1926. Ph.D., Urbana-Champaign: U. Illinois,  2005.

Clemens, T.L. Kluxing in Korn Kountry. M.S. thesis. Illinois State U., 2005.

Ku Klux Klan. Miscellaneous publications. OCLC #17576452

__________. Carlock Unit No. 71. (Carlock, IL) records, 1924-1925. OCLC #79463270

__________. The Illinois Kourier. Newspaper. Chicago: Empire Pub. Co.,1924- OCLC #27358141.

__________. Illinois Fiery Cross. Newspaper. Chicago: Empire Pub. Co, 1924. OCLC # 27358061.

__________. Illinois. Dawn the Herald of a New and Better Day. Newspaper. Chicago: Dawn Pub. Co. OCLC #18536928.

__________. Champaign-Urbana Chapter. Financial records of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, 1924-1926. OCLC #53826828.

Indiana

KKK supported prohibition

INDIANA

Bentley, M. The Klan in Indiana. McClure’s Magazine, 1924 (May), 58.

Bubois, Benjamin vs Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In the United States court for the district of Indiana, in Equity no. … Benjamin Dubois vs. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 1923. OCLC #183904107.

Moore, L. Citizen Klansmen: The Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina Press, 1991. Shows how strongly the KKK supported prohibition.

Cates, F. The Klan in Indiana, 1920-1925. Ph.D., Indiana University, 1971.

Cook, J.R. Visible empire: the  Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. VHS video. 1998. OCLC #40824732.

Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana. Klan officers, Indiana records, 1925. OCLC #30407147.

__________. Indianapolis Chapter. Ledger, 1924. A 929 page membership ledger. OCLC #192095831.

__________. Realm of Indiana. Why the Klan opposed the World. Court. c.1920. OCLC #32377806.

__________. In the matter of the charges and specifications against Klansman David Curtis Stephenson. Involving a major offense trial before tribunal in the Klavern of Evansville. Klan # 1, Realm of Indiana, June 23, 1924. OCLC # 476632716.

__________. Wayne County, IN. Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #11117698.

__________. Whitewater Klan #60 (Richmond, IN) Records, 1916-1933. OCLC #154691467.

__________. The Indiana Kourier. Washington, DC: Empire Pub. Co. Newspaper. Successor to the Fiery Cross. OCLC # 11636710.

__________. Crown Point Klan #72 (Crown Point, IN) Records, 1915?-1933. OCLC # 48126476.

__________. Letters and papers, 1925. OCLC #78791392.

__________. LaPorte, IN (Chapter). Charter, 1925. The charter for the Knights of the Klan, La Porte, Indiana, 30 July 1925. OCLC #34667220.

__________. Realm of Indiana. The Klansmen’s oath. Indiana : Knights of the Klan, Realm of Indiana, 192-? OCLC #20661116.

__________. Realm of Indiana, No. 2. Special instructions. OCLC #20661116.

Lutholtz, M.W. Grand Dragon: D.C. Stephenson and the Klan in Indiana. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue U, 1999

Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D., Northwestern U., 1986.

Iowa

KKK supported prohibitionKu Klux Klan. The Hawkeye Independent. Authorized newspaper, Knights and Women of the Klan, Realm of Iowa. Des Moines: Hawkeye. OCLC #9304987

__________. Newspapers, 1924. Two issues of the Klan’s Iowa newspaper, the Iowa Klan Kourier. OCLC #52973123.

Neymeyer, R.J. In the full light of day: the Klan in 1920’s. Palimpsest, 1995, 76(2).

Pendelton, C.E. Charles Edmund Pendleton papers, 1895-1976. Archival material that Includes material on the Klan in Iowa. OCLC #58392992.

Schieder, D. A Farmer and the Klan in Northwest Iowa.  Ann Iowa, 2002, 61(3),  286-320.

Kansas

Better than Necessary: A Celebrational History of Shawnee Mission North High School.

Jones, R.E. The politics of the Klan in Kansas during the 1920s. M.A. Emporia State University, 2007.

Jones, L.L. The Klan in Eastern Kansas during the 1920’s. Emporia State Res Stud, 1975 (Winter), 23(3).

Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Sunflower Klan No. 9 (Hutchinson, KS) Records. OCLC #43804557.

Kentucky

KKK supported prohibition

KENTUCKY

Kirschenbaum, R. Klan and Commonwealth: the Klan and Politics in Kentucky, 1921-1928. M.A. U. Kentucky, 2005.

Ku Klux Klan. Pond Creek Klan, No. 117 (KY). Pond Creek, Kentucky Klan membership roll, 1926-1928. OCLC #13566339.

__________. Patriotic address by Judge E.C. McDougal, of Richmond, Ky, 192-? OCLC #34339047.

__________. Big Western Kentucky Klan rally, Henderson, Ky., Saturday, June 12, 192-? OCLC #26185350.

__________. Henderson Kounty Klan No. 2. Broadside 30 May 1924. OCLC #60504353.

Luntz, B.F. Forgotten Turmoil: the Southeastern Kentucky Klan. Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2006.

Louisiana

Harrell, K.E. The Ku Klux Klan in Louisiana: 1920-1930. Ph.D., Louisiana State U.,

Ku Klux Klan. Baton Rouge No. 3 records, 1928-1939. OCLC #268677734.

Maine

Ku Klux Klan. Klan collection, 1923-1977. OCLC #237798953.

Richard, M.P. “This is not a Catholic nation.” The Klan confronts Franco-Americans in Maine. New Eng Q, 2009, 28(2).

Maryland

Ku Klux Klan. Records Klan No. 51, Mt. Rainier, Maryland, 1924-1965. OCLC #20793865.

Massachusetts

Painter, N. Harvard University and the Klan, 1923. April 13, 1970. OCLC #228513358.

Michigan

KKK supported prohibition

MICHIGAN

Ku Klux Klan. (Owosso, MI). Collection, 1926.. OCLC #42997201.

__________. Bay City Night Hawk. Newspaper. Bay City, MI. OCLC #40852491.

__________. Newaygo County, MI) Membership cards, 1923,1926. OCLC #41321346.

__________. Miscellaneous Collection, 1924,1929. OCLC #41536809.

__________. Newaygo County membership cards 1923-1926. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan U, 1993. OCLC #36420838.

Mitchell, T.R. White Sheets over West Michigan: the Klan in Newaygo County, Michigan in the 1920s. Honors thesis. U. Michigan, 2000. OCLC #44617252.

Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern, Ph.D., 1986.

Women of the Klan. Realm of Michigan. Wolverine Women. Periodical. Grand Rapids, MI: WKKK, Realm of Michigan, 1928-. OCLC #38868025.

Midwest

Jacobs, M.D. Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest, 1921-8. Ph.D. Marquette U., 2001.

Marszalek, J.F. KKK: The 1920s Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994 (March-April), 11(2).

Tucker, R.K. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.

Minnesota

Hatle, E. and Vaillancourt, N. One flag, one school, one language. Minnesota’s Klan in the 1920s. Minn Hist, 2009-2010, 61(8).

Ku Klux Klan. North Star Klan No. 2.  Voice of the Knights. Newspaper. Minneapolis OCLC #4671781.

__________. The Minnesota Fiery Cross. Newspaper. St. Paul, MN: Empire, 1924-

Taylor, C. Midnight on the Knol: Klan activity on the University of Minnesota campus, 1923-1925. 2001. OCLC #47872026.

Mississippi

Ku Klux Klan. The Kloran of the White Knights, realm of Mississippi. OCLC #227147497.

Missouri

KKK supported prohibitionKu Klux Klan. Constitution and laws of the WKKK, adopted in 1927.

__________. The Klan Kourier. Newspaper. St. Louis, MO: Gail S. Carter, 1924- OCLC #21091237.

__________.  The Patriot. Newspaper. St. Louis: Crane. OCLC #21091206.

Montana

Ku Klux Klan. Wheatland Klan No. 29 (Harlowton, Mont.) records, 1923-1928. OCLC #70966611

Sturdevant, A.M. The Montana Ku Klux Klan During the 1920s. M.A. Washington State U, 2001.

New England

Minehan, M. and Cathcart, D. The New England Ku Klux Klan. Norton, MA: Wheaton Coll, 2004. OCLC #55892036.

New Hampshire

Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1927. OCLC #105537914.

New Jersey

Ku Klux Klan. Realm of New Jersey. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. OCLC #173881510.

New Mexico

Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Dallas, TX. Official regional publication for states including New Mexico. OCLC #25382324.

Mechem, M.C. Gov.  Mechepapers, 1908-1925. Includes information on Klan activities in New Mexico. OCLC #37842197.

New York

kkk supported prohibitionBehreus, D. The KKK flares up on LI. In the early 1920’s, white robes and burning crosses are in many villages. Long Island: Our Story. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com

Jackson, K.T. The Klan in the City 1915-1930. NY: Oxford U. Press, 1967.  

Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1925-1928. Archival material consisting of the Prattsville, New York Chapter record. OCLC #122537049.

__________. Klorero. Elmira, N.Y., July 1-2-3-4-5, 1925. Ku Klux Klan, 1925. OCLC #2743596.

__________. New york Klan #260. Records, 1927-1928. Archival material OCLC #73692266.

__________. Klorero. Mineola, Long Island, July 3-4-5-6, 1926. OCLC #43892048.

__________. Records, 1925-1927. OCLC #86164540

__________.  Collection, 1922-1924. OCLC #155431979.

Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York U. Press, 1995.

North Carolina

Keith, E.C. Congressional investigation of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. M.A. U. North Dakota, 1933.

Ku Klux Klan. Papers. 1923. OCLC #30445249

North Dakota

Ku Klux Klan. Grand Forks Klan No. 1, Grand Forks. Voice of the Knights. Newspaper. OCLC #19317655.

Ohio

kkk supported prohibitionDavis, M. and Mercer, B. “KKK in Springfield Township.” Transcript of interview taped on August 17, 1976. Youngstown State U., OCLC #17691052.

Jenkins, W.D. Steel Valley Clan: the Klan in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley. Kent: Ohio State U. Press, 1990.

Jenkins, W.D. The Klan in Youngstown, Ohio. Moral reform in the twenties. Historian, 1978 (November), 76-93.

Ku Klux Klan. Records. Microfilm edition, 1923-1924.  OCLC #45912343.

__________. The Ohio Kourier. Newspaper. Dayton: Empire, 1924- OCLC #15314212.

Litty, J.C. and Jenkins, W. The Klan in Salem, Ohio. Youngstown State U., OCLC #26145682.

McDermott, F.E. and Papalas, S. “Niles Klan Riot of 1924.” Oral Hist Proj, 1982. OCLC #12299375.

Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D., Northwestern U, 1986.

Oklahoma

Clark, B. A history of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma. Ph.D. U. Oklahoma, 1976.

Oregon

Catholic Truth Society of Oregon. The Klan. Portland: Catholic Truth Society of Oregon, 192-? OCLC # 36231588.

Coulter, T., et al. The Klan in Oregon, 1920-1923: a Documentary. DVD video. Portland, OR: : Frame by Frame Prod, 2009. OCLC #535966757.

Hadbury, J. The Klan in Jackson County (Oregon). OCLC #29020186.

Ku Klux Klan. Oregon Chapter No. 8 (Tillamook, OR), records, 1922-1929.  OCLC #52124365

Toy, E.V. The Ku Klux Klan in Oregon: Its Program and Purpose. M.A. U. Oregon, 1959.

Pennsylvania

KKK supported prohibitionFliss, M. The Ku Klux Klan in Luzerne County. Wilkes-Barre, PA: Wilkes Coll, 1971. OCLC #11050780.

__________. A Ku Klux Klan message to Pennsylvanians. Beware of aliens. 1926. OCLC # 55717288.

__________. The Ku Klux Klan discloses its position on the Presidency: Realm of Pennsylvania. The Klan, 1928. OCLC #9069479.

__________. Philadelphia County Headquarters, No. 3.To the Klansmen of Philadelphia County. Philadelphia, PA: The Office, 1926. OCLC # 41470011.

Kuhn, A. The Klan in Lancaster County, PA. J Lancaster County Hist Soci, 98(3).

Loucks, E.H. The Klan in Pennsylvania: A Study in Nativism. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press, 1936.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island. Adjunct General’s Office. 1928. Report on alleged control of the First Light Infantry by the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC # 41654696

South Carolina

Ku Klux Klan. An Introduction to the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
Spartanburg, SC: 193-? OCLC #7630758.

__________. Why You Should Become a Klansman. Spartanburg, SC. OCLC #225093065′

__________. Photograph of Klan meeting at a house. OCLC #56772051.

__________. Simpsonville, SC: parade., Photograph, n.d.. OCLC #55530541.

Southwest

Alexander, C.C. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest.  Lexington: U. Kentucky Press. 1965.

Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Newspaper. Official regional publication for Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana-Oklahoma-Arizona-New Mexico. Dallas, TX. OCLC #25382324.

Tennessee

KKK supported prohibitionKent, A.P. The Ku Klux Klan in Tennessee. M.A. thesis. Knoxville: U. Tennessee, 1935.

Ku Klux Klan. Knox County Klan No. 14 (Knoxville, TN). 14 records, 1924-1925. OCLC #173863142.

__________.  Records, 1924-1927. OCLC #46612880.

McKay, E. and Dotson, P. Miscellaneous Klan records, Tennessee, 1920-1968. Memphis: Memphis State U, 1982. OCLC #10151135.

Sherrod, I.L. The Ku Klux movement in Tennessee. M.A. thesis. George Peabody Coll Teach, 1935.

Texas

KKK supported prohibitionAlexander, C.C. Crusade for conformity: the Klan in Texas, 1920-1930. Texas Gulf Coast Hist Assn. Publication series, v. 6, no. 1. OCLC #490197.

Ballinger, L. Ku Klux Klan in Fort Worth.  Fort Worth: The author, 1997. OCLC #441284848.

Dallas County Citizen’s League. The Klan. Denver: Am Pub Soc, 1922. OCLC #17977353.

Ku Klux Klan. Temple, Texas. Notice. May 28, 1925. OCLC #54228770

__________. Kountry Klub Klan No. 64, Realm of Texas. The Lodge of Sorrow. 1925. OCLC #54228538

__________. Resolutions upon the death of Mrs. P.H. Benton, TX: 1925. OCLC #54228615.

__________. San Antonio Klan No. 31. Ku Klux special to letter to all Klansmen, 1923. OCLC #26864988.

Utah

Gerlach, L. Blazing Crosses in Zion. The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan: Utah State U. Press, 1982.

Vermont

Ku Klux Klan. America is in danger! Lecture, October 3, 1926. OCLC #53448584

Virginia

KKK supported prohibitionKu Klux Klan. Photograph of the R.E. Lee Ku Klux Klan convention, 1931. OCLC ##52925738

__________. Klan in Roanoke depicts Klaverns from around the state. OCLC ##52925738

__________. Photo of the Ballston Klan No. 6, 1935.  OCLC #647833693

__________. Province No. 2. College of William and Mary. Flag presentation program, 1926. OCLC #11492739

__________. Asu Klan No. 16, Portsmouth, “Pay your poll tax!!!,” 1922. OCLC #123286438.

__________. Save America!! Join United Klans, UKA, 192-? OCLC #26865041.

__________.  Lynchburg Klan No. 11. The Awakening: A patriotic musical. extravaganza. 192-? OCLC #38276863.

Washington

Ku Klux Klan. Klan miscellany, ca. 1920-1925.  OCLC #297210231.

Kuttel, R. Preserving public morality: the Klan of Washington and their Anti-Catholic School Bill. Bellingham, WA: Ryan Kuttel, 2000. OCLC #47840663.

Mayers, G.S. The Ku Klan in Bellingham, 1900-1935. J Whatcom Coun Histl Soc, 2001. OCLC #49429979.

West

Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1992.

West Virginia

Ku Klux Klan. The National Kourier. Newspaper, 1925- OCLC #18796047.

Waugh, H.R. Instructions to the grand jury, 1923. OCLC #70913707.

Wisconsin

KKK supported prohibitionHedberg Public Library (Janesville, WI). Ku Klux Klan: Janesville, Wisconsin. Janesville, WI: Hedberg Public Library, 1992- OCLC #74557347.

Ku Klux Klan. Klan 14 (Chippewa Falls, WI). Records, 1926-1931. OCLC #145790494.

__________. Kleagle of Marathon County, Wisconsin. Marathon, WI: KKK of Marathon County, 192? OCLC #24048884.

__________. Klan souvenir programme, state klonvokation, Oshkosh, July 4th, 1925. OCLC #191702674.

Turcheneske, J.A., Jr. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern Wisconsin. M.A. thesis, River Falls, WI: Wisconsin State U.-River Falls, 1971.

Weaver, N.F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Ph.D. diss, Northwestern U, 1986.

 

General Readings on the KKK of the 1920s

Chalmers, D. Hooded Americans. The History of the Ku Klux Klan. Durham, NC: Duke U. Press, 1991.

Horowitz, D. (Ed.) Inside the Klavern. The Secret History of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U. Press, 1999.

Lay, S. (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

MacLean, N. Behind the Masks of Chivalry. The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. NY: Oxford U. Press, 1994.

Marszalek, J. KKK: The 1920s Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994, 11(2

Miller, R. A Note on the relationship between the Protestant Churches and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. J South Hist, 1956, 22, 355-368.

Moore, L. Historical interpretation of the 1920s Klan. J Soc Hist, 1990, 24, 341-357.

Rice, A.  The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics. Washington: Pub Affairs, 1962.

Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.

Wade, W.  The Fiery Cross. The  Klan in America. NY: Oxford U. Press, 2007.

Weisberger, B.A. When white hoods were in flower. Am Herit, 1992, 43(2), 18-19.

References

1. Chancellor Brehm on Benton Mural. Bloomington: Indiana U press release, March 25, 2002.

2. Lantzwe, J. Dark Beverages of Hell. Part III. Rural History Project.

3. Lay, S. Hooded Knights on the Niagara. The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York U. Press, 1995.

4. McCaymer, J. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Assumption College, Oct 2009.

5. Kleinegger, C. Women in the Ku Klux Klan. Albany: New York State Museum.

6. Norberg, D. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley. White River J, Jan, 2004.

7. Tucker, R. The Dragon and the Cross. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991, p. 111.

8. Politics and World Affairs, Aug  30, 2004. Italics are in original.

9. Feldman, G. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa: U. Alabama Press, 1999.

10. The 1920s: An active Ku Klux Klan raises fear.

11. Johnson, B. John Barleycorn Must die! Little rock: Old State House Museum exhibit.

12. FBI. The Ku Klux Klan. Washington: FBI, July, 1957, p. 21.

13. Moore, L.J. Citizen Klansmen. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: U. North Carolina Press, 1991.

14. Behreus, D. The KKK flares up on LI. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com

15. Smith, R.  The United States from the Late 19th Century through the Great Depression: Prohibition (History 124). U California at Berkeley.

16. Zerzan, J. Rank-and-file radicalism within the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Anarchy, 1993, vol. 37.

17. Schaal, P. Sanford as I Knew It, 1912-1935. Orlando, FL: P. Schaal, 1970. Shows how the KKK supported Prohibition and brutally defended it.

18. O’Neil, T. Prohibition. Post-Dispatch, Jan 13, 2004.

19. Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, 1920s.

20. Sinclair, A. Prohibition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962, p. 26.

21. Moore, ibid.

22. ‘Ku Klux Klan.’

The evidence is clear that thr KK supported prohibition almost fanatically.