Alcohol and Drinking History in America: A Chronology

Promising Future for National Prohibition

1913.

1914.

So many people were convinced that alcohol was the cause of virtually all crime that, as the implementation of National Prohibition approached, some towns in the U.S. actually sold their jails.13

1915.

1916.

1917.

1918.

1919.

Resources

  • 1. Webb-Kenyon Act. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/Webb-Kenyon-Act.html.
  • 2. Alcohol Prohibition Timeline. AAA Native American Arts website. aaanativearts.com/native-american-law/1562-alcohol-prohibition-timeline.html#axzz2gWvVLQjC
  • 3. Cashman, Sean D. Prohibition: the Lie of the Land. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1981; Chalfant, Harry M. These Agitators and Their Ideas. Nashville, TN: Cokesbury Press, 1931; Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: the Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • 4. Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition In The United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 320.
  • 5. Nachel, Marty. Beer for Dummies. Foster City, CA: IDG Books worldwide, 1996, p. 302.
  • 6. Lerner, Michael A. Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 14.
  • 7. National Prohibition and Repeal: West Virginia’s Experience. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081125102126.html
  • 8. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxi.
  • 9. Brook, S. The Wines of California. London: Faber and Faber, 1999.
  • 10. Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1962, p. 31.
  • 11. Anderson, C.H.C. Martyred for Prohibition: Some Truths about Wm. H. Anderson (now in Sing Sing), Dauntless Prohibition Leader for 24 Years. Dallas, TX: C.H.C. Anderson, 1924; Plan new fight for local option; Anti-Saloon League official outlines legislative crusade to be waged here. New York Times, January 2, 1914; Ossian, Lisa. Anderson, William Hamilton. In: Blocker, Jack S., et al. (eds.). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: an International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2003, pp. 41-42.
  • 12. Indiana State Library: Flying Squadron (statelib.lib.in.us/www/isl/indiana/prohibition.html+%22Flying+Squadron%22+prohibition&hl=en); Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • 13. Anti-Saloon League of America. Anti-Saloon League of America Yearbook. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 8. Cited by Mulford, Harold A. Alcohol and Alcoholism in Iowa, 1965. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, 1965, p. 9.
  • 14. Statement from Chancellor Brehm on Benton Mural. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University press release, March 25, 2002. Also see Lay, Shawn. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. New York: New York University Press, 1995; Kleinegger, Christine. Women in the Ku Klux Klan: Constitution and Bylaws; Outline of Principles and Teachings. Albany, New York: New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York, n.d.; Norberg, David. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley: A 1920s Phenomenon. White River Journal, January, 2004;Tucker, Richard K. The Dragon and the Cross: The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991, p. 111; Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1999; Moore, Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • 15. Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americans: the History of the Ku Klux Klan. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.
  • 16. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxii.
  • 17. National Prohibition and Repeal in Idaho. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081119160102.html
  • 18. Iowa and Prohibition: Good Intentions Turn to Toxic Brew. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081125103213.html
  • 19. Washington State Found National Prohibition to be Disastrous and Called for Repeal. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081119164524.html
  • 20. Coloradans Repeal Prohibition after First Supporting It; https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081119153330.html Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxii.
  • 21. Prohibition Party History. Prohibition Party website. prohibitionists.org/History/history.html
  • 22. Alcohol Prohibition Timeline. AAA Native American Arts website. aaanativearts.com/native-american-law/1562-alcohol-prohibition-timeline.html#axzz2gWvVLQjC
  • 23. Sheppard, John Morris. Texas State Historical Association website. tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fsh24
  • 24. Okrent, Daniel. Cited by Burns, Ken in Prohibition. PBS site. pbs.org/kenburns/prohibition/people/#detail=S0045
  • 25. Regan, Gary and Regan, Mardee Maidin. The Book of Bourbon and other Fine American Whiskeys. Shelburn, VT: Firefly Books, 1995, chapter 1 reprinted on Distilled Spirits Council website. discus.org/heritage/spirits/#23
  • 26. Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973, p. 19.
  • 27. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxii.
  • 28. Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1962, p. 61.
  • 29. Kelly, Martin. Prohibition Era Timeline. American History website. about.com/od/prohibitionera/a/prohibition.htm
  • 30. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxii.
  • 31. The Eighteenth Amendment. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/The-Eighteenth-Amendment.html
  • 32. Stayton, William H. Have We Prohibition or only Prohibition laws? North American Review, June, 1925, 221, 591-59; Stayton, William H. The official view of the Anti-Prohibition Association, Current History, April, 1928, 4-9. Stayton was referring to the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment; Stayton, William H. A Message for Opponents of Prohibition. (pamphlet) Washington, DC: Association Against the Prohibition Amendment, 1925.
  • 33. Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1962, p. 121.
  • 34. Lerner, Michael A. Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 11.
  • 35. The Eighteenth Amendment. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/The-Eighteenth-Amendment.html)
  • 36. Ratification of Constitutional Amendments. U.S. Constitution website. usconstitution.net/constamrat.html
  • 37. The Volstead Act. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/Volstead-Act.html
  • 38. TheEighteenth Amendment. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/The-Eighteenth-Amendment.html
  • 39. Heavenward Ho! Time, July 28, 1924; Anti-Saloon League: World League Against Alcoholism (westervillelibrary.org/AntiSaloon/resources/world_league_against_alcoholism.html
  • +%22World+League+Against+Alcoholism%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1).
  • 40. Rose, Kenneth D. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. New York: New York University Press, 1996, p. 58.
  • * There is confusion regarding the date and status of Connecticut's ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment. The Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress reported on page 1 of The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation. 2008 Supplement that "Although some sources (including the main volume of this book) state that Connecticut ratified the 18th Amendment on May 6, 1919 (after the date that three-fourths of the states had ratified it, and after the Acting Secretary of State, on January 28, 1919, had certified that the 18th Amendment had become valid; see 40 Stat. 1941-42 (1919), the Journal of the Senate of the State of Connecticut, January Session, 1919, reported on May 6, 1919, at page 1191: “The committee of Conference, to whom was referred a resolution [Senate Joint Resolution No. 56] ratifying an Amendment to the Constitution concerning the Manufacture, Sale and Transportation of Intoxicating Liquors, reported that they had the same under consideration and cannot agree . . . .”; The New York Times (February 5, 1919) reported that, on February 4, 1919, the Connecticut Senate voted against ratification by a vote of 20 to 14. A week later (February 12, 1919), the same newspaper reported that, on February 11, 1919, the Connecticut House of Representatives voted in favor of ratification by a vote of 153 to 96.)

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