Alcohol and Drinking History in America: A Chronology

The Guilded Age

1890s. The first vineyard in Nebraska was 12 acres planted by Peter Pitz near Plattsmouth. 1

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894. Seven of the largest wine companies formed the California Wine Association and came to produce about 80% of the state’s production.11

1895.

1896. William Ashley "Billy" Sunday began his preaching career and became one of the major promoters of temperance. Following Repeal, “his sermons became more extreme and reactionary, promoting a specific type of Americanism that excluded those who were not native-born fundamentalist Christians.” Billy Sunday died a wealthy man in 1935.14

1897. At the request of distillers, Congress passed the Bottled in Bond Act of 1897, enabling them to assure customers of the authenticity and quality standards of their products. to be labeled “bottled in bond,” a bourbon must be at least 100 proof (50 percent alcohol), produced by only one distiller in one season, and be aged at least four years in a warehouse closely supervised by the U.S. Treasury Department.15

1898. The first brewery opened in Hawaii.16

1899. The Anti-Saloon League opened legislative offices in Washington, DC.17

1900.

1901-1902. During the 1901-1902 school year, 22 million school children were exposed to mandatory Scientific Temperance Instruction (anti-alcohol education), according to the WCTU.20

1901.

1902. The barrel tax on beer was reduced following the Spanish-American war.25

1903.

1906. The Scientific Temperance Federation was created upon the death of Mary Hunt, head of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union's Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction in Schools and Colleges. It was necessitated by legal arrangements that Mary Hunt had made to conceal the income from her "voluntary" work approving which texts were used across the U.S. clouded ownership of her estate. It published temperance materials until at least 1968.29

1907. Georgia and Oklahoma became the first states in the U.S. to adopt statewide prohibition in the twentieth century.30

1908.

The Belden Tribune (NM) reports that alcohol sales to minors are a serious problem throughout the entire state of New Mexico. The editor of the paper declares that “the sheriff should wake up and catch one or two of these lawbreakers and have them hauled up before the court” to serve as examples to all others who are exploiting young people. He also urges parents to provide help to law enforcement authorities in identifying those who are providing alcohol to underage drinkers. All of this was reported in issues of The Belden Tribune published in 1909.34

1909.

1910.

1911. Alabama’s state-wide prohibition law was replaced by a law creating local option by county.41

1912.

Resources

  • 1. Stevenson, Tom. The Sotheby’s Wine Encyclopedia. London: DK, 3rd ed., 2005, p. 528.
  • 2. Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition In The United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 237.
  • 3. Newkirk, Brian, and Atkinson, Rob. Buying Wine Online: Rethinking the 21st Amendment for the 21st Century. Progressive Policy Institute Policy Report, January, 2003, p. 5. Progressive Policy Institute website. dlc.org/documents/E-Wine_0203.pdf
  • 4. Kelly, Martin. Prohibition Era Timeline. American History website. about.com/od/prohibitionera/a/prohibition.htm
  • 5. Regan, Gary and Regan, Mardee Maidin. The Book of Bourbon and other Fine American Whiskeys. Shelburn, VT: Firefly Books, 1995, chapter 1 reprinted on Distilled Spirits Council website. discus.org/heritage/spirits/#23
  • 6. Tyack, David, B., and James, Thomas. Moral majorities and the school curriculum: Historical perspectives on the legalization of virtue. Teachers College Record, 1985, 86, 513-537. P. 517.
  • 7. Anti-Saloon League. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/Anti-Saloon-League.html.
  • 8. Billings, John S. Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem: Investigations Made by and Under the Direction of John 0. Atwater, John S. Billings and Others. Sub-Committee of the Committee of Fifty to Investigate the Liquor Problem. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1903, p. 44.
  • 9. Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965, p. 323.
  • 10. Stevenson, Tom. The Sotheby’s Wine Encyclopedia. London: DK, 3rd ed., 2005, p. 529.
  • 11. Lukacs, Paul. Inventing Wine. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012, p. 183.
  • 12. Trex, Ethan. How the temperance movement almost killed root beer. Mental Floss, 2010. Mental Floss website. .com/article/25428/how-temperance-movement-almost-killed-root-beer
  • 13. Lukacs, Paul. Inventing Wine. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012, pp. 176-177.
  • 14. Allen, Robert. Billy Sunday: Home Run to Heaven. Mott Media: Milford, MI. 1985; Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004.
  • 15. Bottled in Bond. The Bourbon Observer website, May 27, 2009. blogspot.com/2009/05/bottled-in-bond.html
  • 16. History of American Beer. Beer Advocate website. com/beer/101/history_american_beer
  • 17. Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition In The United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 264.
  • 18. Nation, Carry Amelia. The Use and Need of the Life of Carry A. Nation. Topeka: F. M. Steves & Sons, 1905, 1908; Asbury, Herbert. Carry Nation. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1929; Hubbard, George U. Carry Nation and Her Denver Crusade of 1906. Cripple Creek, CO: Leland Feitz, 1972; Lewis, Bill. Carry Nation: the trouble was all in her head. Arkansas Gazette. August 25, 1978, pp. 1B, 6B; Madison, Arnold. Carry Nation. Nashville: T. Nelson, 1977.
  • 19. Nachel, Marty. Beer for Dummies. Foster City, CA: IDG Books worldwide, 1996, p. 311.
  • 20. Hunt, Mary H. Reply to the Physiological Sub-Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Cleveland, OH?:Woman’s Christian Temperance Union Convention, 1904, p. 23.
  • 21. Forbes, Thom. How Budweiser Became the King of Beers. Thom Forbes website, 2008.
  • 22. Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition In The United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 271.
  • 23. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/Biography-Ernest-H-Cherrington.html#.Uj36xRaD4a4
  • 24. The third largest college organization in America is the inter-collegiate Prohibition Association. Torch & Witt Today (Wittenberg University), February 1, 1903, p. 203; Ohio Historical Society: Intercollegiate Prohibition Association (ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/research/historyday03/temperance.html+%22Intercolleg
  • 25. History of American Beer. Beer Advocate website.
  • com/beer/101/history_american_beer
  • 26. Esteicher, Stefan K. Wine from Neolithic Times to the 21st Century. New York: Algora Publishing, 2006, p. 86.
  • 27. Arnold, Arthur F. Lincoln-Lee Legion Temperance Sunday Brochure. Westerville, OH: Lincoln-Lee Legion, 1917; Engs, Ruth C., (ed.) The Progressive Era's Health Reform Movements. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003; Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • 28. Ellis, M. German-Americans in World War I. In: Fiebig-von Hase, R., and Lehmkuhl, U., (eds.) Enemy Images in American History. Oxford, England: Berghahn Books, 1997. Pp 183-208.
  • 29. Scientific Temperance Foundation. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/The-Scientific-Temperance-Federation.html
  • 30. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxi.
  • 31. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxi.
  • 32. ; In Memorium: Purley Baker, 1858-1924. Westerville, OH: American Issue Publishing Company, 1924.
  • 33. Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965, p. 323.
  • 34. Melzer, Richard. Animal cruelty, drought, schools: Things never change, at least if you’re reading the newspapers. The News-Bulletin, February 21, 2004.
  • 35. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxi.
  • 36. Regan, Gary and Regan, Mardee Maidin. The Book of Bourbon and other Fine American Whiskeys. Shelburn, VT: Firefly Books, 1995, chapter 1 reprinted on Distilled Spirits Council website. discus.org/heritage/spirits/#23
  • 37. National Prohibition and Repeal: the Illinois Experience. https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/Controversies/20081125114557.html
  • 38. Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • 39. Brown, George Garvin. The Holy Bible Repudiates “Prohibition”: Compilation of all Verses Containing the Words “Wine” or “Strong Drink,” Proving that the Scriptures Commend and Command the Temperate Use of Alcoholic Beverages. Louisville, KY: G.G. Brown, 1910.
  • 40. Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996;Tyack, David, B., and James, Thomas. Moral majorities and the school curriculum: Historical perspectives on the legalization of virtue. Teachers College Record, 1985, 86, 513-537.
  • 41. Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition In The United States of America. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Press, 1920, p. 304.
  • 42. Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004, p. xxi.
  • 43. Harmon, Nolan B. The Encyclopedia of Methodism. Vol. 1. Nashville, TN: United Methodist Publishing House, 1974, p. 793.
  • 44. Nachel, Marty. Beer for Dummies. Foster City, a: IDG Books worldwide, 1996, p.
    311.

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