Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk: Drinking Alcohol Beneficial

Rheumatoid arthritis risk is reduced by drinking alcohol. It can be beer, wine or spirits. Drinking any or all of these reduces rheumatoid arthritis risk. In moderation, of course.

rheumatoid arthritis riskRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an incurable inflammatory disease. It’s an autoimmune disorder. The immune system attacks the victim’s own body instead of an infection. The body is attacking itself. The reasons not yet understood.

The target of these attacks is the synovium.  That’s the lining of the membranes that surround joints. The inflammation that results from these attacks causes the synovium to thicken. This can destroy the cartilage and bone in the joint.

The ligaments and tendons that hold the joints together stretch and weaken.  The joints can then loosen and become mis-aligned.

Common symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Joints that are painful, tender, swollen, and warm.
  • Joint stiffness in the morning.
  • More than one joint affected.
  • The same joints on both sides of the body usually affected.

Many people also experience other symptoms.

  • Fatigue.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Loss of weight that is not intended.
  • Low fever.

Rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect smaller joints first. Usually in the fingers and toes. Symptoms then tend to spread to the wrists, elbows, and ankles. Then to the knees, hips and shoulders.

The inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis can also cause problems in other parts of the body.

Eyes. Can be dry, painful, red, sensitivity to light.

Mouth. Can be dryness. Gums can be painful or infected.

Skin. Can have rheumatoid nodules. These are small lumps under the skin over bony areas.

Lungs. Can be Inflamed  and scarred, causing shortness of breath.

Blood Vessels. Can be inflamed, causing damage to nerves, skin, and other organs.

Blood. Can have a lower number of red blood cells (anemia).1

The inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis can cause heart problems. It can also promote osteoporosis and carpel tunnel syndrome.

Rheumatoid arthritis risk factors.

  • Gender. Women are almost three times more likely to develop the disease.
  • Age. RA usually develops between the ages of 30 and 60 in women and later in men. But it can begin at any age.
  • Family History. Having RA in an ancestor or other blood relative increases the risk.

A number of other factors are believed to increase the risk of the  disease.

  • Infections.
  • Stress.
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke, air pollution, and insecticides.
  • Exposures at work to silica and mineral oil.

People can’t change their sexual genetics, age or family history. But they can change their lifestyle. Moderate drinking reduces rheumatoid arthritis risk.

Research on Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk

  • “Patients with early arthritis consume less alcohol than controls, regardless of the type of arthritis.”2
    The relationship between drinking and rheumatoid arthritis risk was studied. Drinking significantly reduced rheumatoid arthritis risk. The same was true for other forms of the disease. Arthritis patients drank less than controls, regardless of arthritis type.
  • “Long term alcohol intake and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women. A population based cohort study.”3
    Studied were 34,141 women. There was a 37% decreased rheumatoid arthritis risk among women who drank over four glasses of alcohol weekly. That was compared to those who either never drank or who had less than one glass per week. Women who drank over three glasses weekly in both 1987 and 1997 had a 52% decrease risk later. That’s compared with those who never drank.
  • Smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.”4
    This study looked at rheumatoid arthritis among postmenopausal women. Those who had more than 14 drinks per week had a 50% reduced rheumatoid arthritis risk compared to abstainers.
  • Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Results from two Scandinavian case-control studies.”5
    A Swedish study used 1,204 cases and 871 controls. A Danish study used 444 cases and 533 controls. Among drinkers, the quarter with the highest consumption levels showed a decreased rheumatoid arthritis risk of 40-50% . That, when compared to the half with the lowest consumption.
  • “Alcohol, androgens and arthritis.”6
    A cohort of 9,777 Finnish men was studied for 134,083 person years. Potential confounding variables were controlled. An inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and rheumatoid arthritis risk was found. That is, drinking was protective against the disease.
  • Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with risk and severity of rheumatoid arthritis.”7
    A study was done with 873 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 1,004 controls. Drinking reduced both the risk and severity of the disease. As the frequency of drinking increased the risk of RA dropped. Abstainers had four times the rheumatoid arthritis risk of those who drank more than ten days a month.
  • “Lifestyle and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.”8
    Data from 135 young women with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis and 378 controls were analyzed. The risk of developing RA in women who consumed alcohol at least once a day was reduced by 48%.
  • Associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis.”9
    A study of 662 patients with rheumatoid arthritis followed them for an average of four years. Moderate drinking was linked with a better functional status.
  • Increased alcohol intake associated with decreased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.”10
    This study examined persons age 18-70 and controls. Having three drinks weekly reduced rheumatoid arthritis risk. Consuming ten drinks per week gave even more protection.
  • Reduced incidence of alcohol related deaths in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.”11
    Analysis of data from 1,666 RA patients in Finland found that drinking was  linked with a lower rheumatoid arthritis risk.
  • “Alcohol consumption and risk of incident rheumatoid arthritis in women. A prospective study.”12
    This study analyzed data from two prospective cohorts with a total of 238,131 female nurses. It yielded 3,680,000 person years of data. Compared to abstaining, drinking in moderation greatly reduced rheumatoid arthritis risk.
  • The protective effect of alcohol on developing rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.”13
    Researchers analyzed data from nine studies (six case’“control and three cohort studies). They found a significant protective effect of alcohol on  rheumatoid arthritis risk in the case-control but not in the cohort studies.
  • “Alcohol consumption as a preventive factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.”14
    Researchers analyzed data from eight prospective studies. They involved 195,029 people and 1,878 cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Light to moderate drinking reduced rheumatoid arthritis risk. It did so for both men and women. Such drinking for at least 10’…years reduced the risk of the disease by 17%.

References

  • 1 Arthritis Foundation. Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms.
  • 2 Huidekoper, A.L., et al. Patients with early arthritis consume less alcohol than controls, regardless of the type of arthritis. Rheu., 2013, 52 (9), 1701-1707.
  • 3 Di Giuseppe D., et al. Long term alcohol intake and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women. Brit. Med. J., 2012, 345:e4230.
  • 4 Voigt LF, et al.  Smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Epi., 1994, 5(5), 525-32.
  • 5 Kallberg, H., et al. Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheu. Dis., 2009, 68(2), 222-228.
  • 6 Aho, K. and Heliovaara, M. Alcohol, androgens and arthritis. Ann. Rheu. Dis., 1993, 52(12), 897.
  • 7 Maxwell, J.R., et al. Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with risk and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheu., 2010, 49(11), 2140-2146.
  • 8 Hazes, J.M., et al. Lifestyle and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rhe. Dis., 1990, 49(12), 980’“982.
  • 9 Lu, B., et al. Associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheu., 2014, 41(1), 24-30.
  • 10 Turesson, C. Increased Alcohol Intake Associated with Decreased Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis. (Abstract) Paper at the European Congress of Rheumatology. Barcelona, Spain. June 13-16, 2007.  European League Against Rheumatism, June 15, 2007. See Drinking Alcohol May Reduce Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  • 11 Myllykangas-Lusojarvi, R., et al. Reduced incidence of alcohol related deaths in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheu. Dis., 2000, 59, 75-7612.
  • 12 Lu, B., et al. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis in Women. Arth. & Rheu., 2014, 66(8), 1998-2005.
  • 13 Scott, I.C., et al.  The protective effect of alcohol on developing rheumatoid arthritis. Rheu., 2013, 52(5), 856-67.
  • 14 Jin, Z., et al. Alcohol consumption as a preventive factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheu. Dis., 2014, 73, 1962-1967.